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    FAQ or Answers to Frequently Asked Questions                  Section 40
            Please check "root" (faq$txt) file for acknowledgements. 
    This is a file containing answers, tips, hints and guidelines associated 
    with recurring  questions asked by photographers.   If you would like to 
    add a tidbit of knowledge to  this list just send it to   ANDPPH@rit.edu 
    who will gladly add it to this collection. For complete table of content
    send message to   ritphoto@rit.edu   with  FAQ$txt  in the Subject: line
                    These files are available in SECTIONS. 
             This is Section 40 and its contents are listed below.

    40.01  -< A bibliography on Pinhole Books >-
    40.02  -< Ethics at an accident or crime scene >-
    40.03  -< A personal brown toner formulation  >-
    40.04  -< PJ Position Interviewing Advice - applicable elsewhere too! >-
    40.05  -< Good Book recommendation - The Art of Photography  >-
    40.06  -< Putting pizzaz in a photography curriculum >-
    40.07  -< Three Most Important Highlights in History of Photography >-
    40.08  -< A couple more labs that process IR Ektachrome (E-4) >-
    40.09  -< Hand Coloring - materials and instructions >-
    40.10  -< Making your own bellows - instructions, supplies >-

40.01          -< A bibliography on Pinhole Books >-

Renner, Eric: Bibliography on Pinhole Optics in Science and Art from  5th
Century B.C. to 1850 A.D. Available from Pinhole Ressource, Pinhole Journal. 

Page, Stanley R.: Bibliography on Pinhole Photography from 1850 to  Present.
Available from Pinhole Ressource, Pinhole Journal. 

COLSON, R.: "La Photographie sans Objectif", in Confˇrences publiques  sur la
photographie thˇorique et technique organisˇes sous l'ˇgide de la Sociˇtˇ
Fran¨aise de Photographie et du Conservatoire National des Arts et Mˇtiers. 
Paris: 1891. Reprint: Paris: Jean Michel Place, 1985. 

Franke, John M.: "Field-Widened Pinhole Camera", Applied Optics, vol.  18, n¼.
17, pp. 2913-2914, septiembre, 1979.

Pinhole Journal (1985-) Star Route 15, Box 1655, San Lorenzo, New  Mexico
88057, U.S.A. 

Renner, Eric: Pinhole Photograpy. Rediscovering a Historic Technique.  Boston,
London: Focal Press, 1995.

Smith, L.: The Visionary Pinhole. Peregrine Smith, Layton, Utah, 1985. Young,
M.: "Pinhole Imagery", American Journal of Physics, vol 40 , no. 5, pp.
715-720, mayo 1972.

From: Alfonso de Castro 

40.01          -< Printing out paper - where to get it  >-
>I am looking for a source for some old fashioned printing out paper. The 
>kind that is used for proof prints.

Chicago Albumen Works
Front Street
Housatonic, MA 01236
(413) 274-6901

From: Tom Sheft 

40.02            -< Ethics at an accident or crime scene >-
>What is proper and ethical behavior when photographing at an accident or crime
Being a police officer I can maybe help with some of your questions.
The first thing that you want to do as you arrive at the scene of an incident
is to identify yourself. Then after that these rules should apply.
1-Do not hinder the duties of law enforcement, EMS or fire personnel, by
blocking traffic or personnel from entering the scene. Try to remain out of the
way and until the incident is under control please refrain from tying up
personnel with questions. After the incident is under control and in hand we
are more then willing to allow you to ask questions and take photos as long as
it doesn't hinder our scene. Remember, we at the scene are trying to solve a 
crime, aid the injured or conduct an investigation. When we ask that you remain
away from the scene we are not hiding things from you but trying to preserve
the scene.
2-Show courtesy toward victims and suspects. Many may not want their
photographs taken.
3-Refer the law on scene. If the area is a crime scene or under  investigation
and the police and fire have control, please ask where you may go. If you are
told to remain out do not enter, you more then likely will be arrested and
charged criminally. 
4-A good way to get in with local police and fire personnel is to stop by their
offices when they are not on a call and introduce yourself. Let them know who
you are and that you are not the monger that the press is made out to be. 

40.03          -< A personal brown toner formulation  >-
Brown Toner I use:

potassium bromide 50 g
potassium ferricyanide 50 g
water to 1 litre.
Sodium Sulphide 50g
water to 1 litre. 
With Multigrade FB, I use the solutions full strength, and re-use them until
they are exhausted. With chloro-bromide papers such as Sterling, I dilute
the bleach 1+9 with water, or even more, and stop bleaching before all the
density has gone from the shadows. Otherwise, the shadows don't go dark
enough when put in the sulphide bath.
Using a two-bath method gives more control over the finished result. I have
tried hypo-alum one-bath toner, which needs to be used at around 50 deg C,
but it just gives me the same tones as the sulphide toner.
From: Ian Aldcroft 
Amateur photography web site at http://www.airtime.co.uk/amphot/

40.04   -< PJ Position Interviewing Advice - applicable elsewhere too! >-
> I am applying for a job as a photographer for a local newspaper. I don't 
> have a degree in journalism, but I have taken some photo classes. I feel 
> qualified for this entry level postition. I get nervous when I am asked 
> questions face to face during an interview. I want to be able to get a
> start in the photographic field. Anyone have any helpful hints for me?
1. Focus (excuse the pun) on your strenths pertinent to the job. Describe your
background and experience in full slanting it toward the position you are
after. Remember: They have a problem (need a photographer) and YOUR job is to
show them that YOU are the photographer they are looking for.
2. If given a negative (excuse the second pun) regarding lack of experience
etc. from the interviewer, turn it into a positive on your behalf (e.g.
"...true, but my lack of professional experience doesn't really reflect my
knowledge, skills and abilities. Let my show you some of my work...")
3. Without pushing it (a stretch on "pushing", but excuse the third pun) 
convince the interviewer you are capable of doing what is required. Be sure to
bring a portfolio and tear sheets.
4. Be relaxed and conversational...don't let the interview turn into the
Spanish Inquisition. Add anecdotes and personal experience where appropriate
that show you can do the job.
5. Never answer with a "yes" or "no;" always add a caveat refocusing on your
abilities. Mix it up with positive statements about yourself that end with a
question back to the interviewer. 
6. Learn as much as you can about the organization before the interview so that
you can talk intelligently about it. Interviewers like it when you know
something about their organization.
7. Remember, you are going in for an interview to solve a problem - they need a
photographer. Your job is to convince them that YOU are the person they need to
hire. Learn as much about that job as you can PRIOR to the interview, even if
you have to phone (anonymously or fictiously) to the particular department and
ask "informational interview" type questions (i.e. "Im thinking about getting
into the photography profession and am interested in working in an environment
similar to your organization....What sort of assignments does a photographer at
XYZ Corp. usually get; what sort of relationship exists between the photog and
the editor; " etc. etc. 
8. Be appropriately dressed (neat, clean, professional,) don't use perfume (you
may like it, I may like it and 1,000,000 others may like it, but if the
interviewer DOESN'T like it you've struck a negative chord) or wear jewelry
obviously associated with religious groups or service organizations.
9. Be prepared to show the interviewer how YOU can solve his/her photographic
10. "Pray as if it all depends upon God, then work as if it all depends upon
YOU" (Richard Allen Bolles)
Greg Tims 
I was in your position in your position when I applied to Reuter News Agency in
London, years ago, which was my first ever photographic job interview - so
could not get greener than that. I was succesful & got the job as photographer
& later on, after settled in, I asked the chief photographer, why he gave me
the job.
His reply was a number of points.
Above all else, he saw I was keen, like a lunatic, as he said, if you have
someone keen, he / she has a natural will to learn & learn fast, & I did. I
will give you an example of how he tested me.....
A few days after the interview, Band Aid happened in London. He rang me and
said Bob Geldof would be in a night club that night & he needed a shot. If I
got it, he would pay me. I turned up about 10pm or so, after travelling an hour
from home, and all Fleet Street were there. For some reason, I can't remember,
no one got him going in. I figured if he went in, he has to come out. It was
3am & I was the last photographer there, when he left. Bob Geldof took pity on
me in the dark on my own so late & I was the only one to get a tired Bob Geldof
& Paula Yates. I then took it back to Reuters, processed & printed it. I got a
call at home from the Chief photographer later that morning when I was asleep
at home, asking if I had seen the papers. He told me I got 3 front covers, I
did cartwheels & was in heaven, & I earned about US$70!!.
He was impressed at my keeness & told me, if I had failed or could not turn up,
he would have waited 6 months before calling again. If I failed that, I was
permanent history. I later became staff, which started my working life as a
photographer & never looked back.
For the interview, I spent my last money on a suit (no joke, a year out of
college having had very little work, does not make you rich!!!), so that I
dressed the same as the position expected & it was noted by the chief
Last of all, as you can imagine, I was in knots before the interview, but took
the attitude that it is more stressful trying to work out a "person" I was not,
that decided I can only be myself, & if I get the job - I get the job ! The
point being, he could see my personality, not a person being the perfect yes/no
interviewee. The number one hates are yes/no people & people who give the
impression that they are not really 110% keen or serious.
The pictures you show stand for themselves, it is too late to worry about them.
They will be able to read much more into them than you can at your stage. They
want to see a spark, a core of possibility & potential. If they criticise an
image, treat it as a free "pearl of wisdom". Since then, I have noticed, some
people will criticise an image, more to watch your reaction - are you offended,
or do you treat it as an education. My pictures were average, really average,
but he saw I was willing to learn - thats what made me win.
Cardinal rule one, if you are less than 10 mins early - you are late. If I held
an interview & the person was 30 seconds late or in untidy dress, I would tell
him to forget it. It sounds hard, but you have to remember that the logic is
that the person will try the hardest at the interview. If they get the job &
get relaxed, then being on time & correctly dressed, will also relax. So if
late at the interview, god help you if you employ them!
Last of all, I now work for myself & something funny happens. When work is
slow/dead, you try harder when presenting you portfolio. When I am busy, it is
more an annoyance to go and show it, and in a subtle way try less hard to get
the job. The joke is, I have more success in getting the jobs when busy, than
when slow. The reason being, I think I come across more professional, thats
what I do etc, etc, etc, rather than coming across as a "please, I need the
work" person. I think, when I am busy, I am more confident & they relate that
as - he's busy, he must be good, rather than he really wants this job, it must
be slow for him, therefore is he any good!!
The moral is, be very keen, but don't over do it to the extent of being a
yes/no person. Sometimes, I will intentionally disagree on a small point, just
to show them I have my own opinions. Be on time (early) & be dressed suitably.
Most of all if it is not a contradiction - treat the job like it's no big deal,
it will relax you & you will come across much better.
I would stress badly on my first Reuter jobs. The chief photographer then told
me,- at the end of the day, it is only a picture, if I don't get the shot - no
ones going to die. That comment made me put the job into perspective & made me
relax, & guess what, the standard of my images rocketed. (That's not to say
that, coming back without the picture or being late, were the two worst crimes
you could do, but he was clever, he knew if I relaxed, I would be better at the
David J Osborn 
I would  only add one suggestion. Don't be afraid to ask questions.
I have had the experience of interviewing many candidates either for  jobs or
as applicants for medical school. I always provide information either  about
the job, or about the school. I am always amazed at the number of  applicants
that sit there like a bump on a log, and never ask a simple  question. I have a
very strong tendency, supported by 25 years of experience,  to reject those
people. If you ask a question, even the proverbial dumb one,  it demonstrates
that you have the capacity to listen (a very important thing),  think, and
process information. Also, it removes some of the burdon from the  interviewer.
He/she does not need to do all the work of thinking, you are  doing some of it
too. So, don't be afraid. Ask away. It does impress the  interviewer!
Bill Jacobus 
A big step that first photographic interview.  Here is my insight into the
interviewing experience.  Firstly, my name is Michael.  In a former career I
was a  manager, hired, fired, gave raises, and occasional praise.
Being nervous at an interview is quite natural.  Would it surprise you to learn
that as an interviewer I was nervous?  After all I had to make an impression
too!!  So look at it this way.....
The interviewing process is a two-way street.  I have a need to hire someone,
as well as you need a position that I might hire you for.  With this in mind
are you ready to interview ME?  How do you know you want to work for me?  Why? 
Many questions come to mind that you would need to know for a photojournalism
position.  What geographic area will you cover?  Is travel involved?  If travel
is involved, how are expenses covered?  Issues of standard practice like, who
supplies what?  The questions really come later in the interview, first, lets
cover some ground rules. 
Some basic interview rules:
be late.
not show up (this is very insulting)
forget your portfolio.
ask about the pay before you are offered a position.
give an answer about pay before they offer you a position.
ask about vacation days, weeks, of time off in general.
get personal.
chew gum.
discuss others offers you may have received.
never speak negatively about any past job, or boss, or co-worker.
smoke, or smell like smoke.
bring a friend.
drink any beverage, unless specifically offered by the interviewer(no one
suck up to the interviewer, it is tacky, and a turn off.
be on time.
dress nicely, do not overdress. 
have your portfolio.
have a copy of your resume (in case their copy is misplaced).
have references ready to give them.
have the name, address, and phone numbers for all previous positions held.
be on time
type all correspondence, use originals.  
have questions relating directly to the newspaper.
look at their archives prior to the interview (what they have used is what
they liked, and the interviewer may have photos there ).
know about the papers style.
ask why they have an opening (did the boss kill the last photographer?).
ask about the department you will work in.
did I mention to be on time!
keep in mind that with your skill, attitude, desire, and willingness to work
for practically         nothing because you love photography so much.......that
the paper needs you as  much, or more than you need them.
After you have dazzled the interviewer with your brilliance, don't forget to
follow up with a letter (one page--one paragraph) thanking the interviewer for
his/her time, mention how thrilled you are to be considered for the position. 
Mail this the day of the interview, do not wait.  The point is to once again
bring attention to you, because maybe you weren't brilliant.  Maybe they are
considering you and another person...This note just might set you apart from
the other person, and it is courteous. 
Just two points to help you relax about the interview.  First: You are not
nervous about taking photographs, because you know photography.  You will not
be as nervous about the interview IF you know something about the paper, and
have questions about it.  Secondly:   It is my experience at 38 years of age,
that every moment of our lives is an interview in some fashion.  In our life,
jobs, family, friends, lovers, potential loves, we seek to impress others with
our virtues.  Only the magnitude of our desire to impress changes.  So how
might this help you relax?  Well if assign the job a ranked importance in your
life in general, I am sure you will see other things/people are way more
important than the interviewer, and what he/she has to offer.
The really important part is the moment when they offer you the position.  Get
the cash too!  Now is the time to discuss pay and benefits.  Be sure to cover
the issue of incidental expenses.  But really the topic of money in photography
is best left to those already paid for it, and you can find some of them at:
NPPA-L National Press Photogs. Association list. To subscribe send mail to:
LISTSERV@CMUVM.CSV.CMICH.EDU and in body of message write only the following 
SUBSCRIBE NPPA-L  (your name here). This is a central electronic meeting place
for visual communicators, news photographers, photo editors, systems and
graphics editors, freelancers, page designers, etc. Consider also the PHOTOTUJ 
PJ list at Temple U. Sen mail to: LISTSERV@vm.temple.edu and in body of message
write only SUBSCRIBE PHOTOTUJ "your-real-name-here". This is a small PJ 
discussion group located at Temple University.
Thanks for reading this mixture of opinion, experience, and standard practice, 
and have fun at the interview. 
Michael A. Cox 
PS if you don't get the job, respond with a letter thanking the interviewer for
considering you, and ask if they have any suggestions as to how you might 
improve your chances next time.

40.05       -< Good Book recommendation - The Art of Photography  >-

A month or so ago, someone here recommended the book "The Art of   
Photography" by Bruce Barnbaum. Whoever did that, thank you. I got my   
library to find it for me and read one of the best books on photography   
that I've ever read. Now I'll have to buy it from somewhere.
From: "Davidson, Clyde" 

40.06        -< Putting pizzaz in a photography curriculum >-
>I am a photography teacher in New York at the High School Level. I have
>developed a photography curriculum that focuses in on basic black and
>Is there anyone out there who can make some suggesions as to what I can
>add to my curriculum? Any advise or suggestions would be great!

Well, as a Photo Editor of a college newspaper, It's possible that some of your
students (or students like them) will come to me wanting to work for the paper. 
Of the 15 or so freshman I managed to recruit this year, only two had ever done
any photojournalistic work. Both of the photo classes I took in High school
focused on the art side of photography, and we did alot of abstract work,
nature, and portrature. Fine Art stuff. 

I gained a good basic knowledge of photography that way, but everything I know
about shooting for newspapers I learned through expierence, books, or
mentorships. Maybe you could do a couple of projects where students do
documentary work, photoillustration, and some hard news shooting. My life would
be alot easier if I didn't have to teach Photojournalism 101 to all my new
shooters. I'm looking for someone who can not only produce a pretty picture,
but someone who can tell a story with that same photo.
Eric M. Bakken, Photo Editor, The Wooster Voice, Wooster, Ohio

If you are concentrating on black & white, why not get some polaroid film in
their for emulsion transfers? It's a good way to introduce color and provide a
unique image. That's only a quick fix, but I would suggest you learn about one
new photographer per semester. Make copy slides of the work from books, and
show the work to your students. Identify what is intriguing about that
photographer's work and build an assignment around it.
Russell J. Rosener, rrosener@stlnet.com

I teach photography part-time on the college level. The college has recently
gotten rid of its wonderful darkroom and is going completely digital!! It's a
very costly initial investment, but will save money in the long run; besides,
the kids who go on to a career in photography will have to know digital. I'm
teaching myself digital photography one week and teaching it to the classes the
next week. Try that and you won't be bored - crazy maybe, but not bored!! I
couldn't do it without help and advice from others on the internet. You might
introduce digital photography to your class and show them some of the
possibilities. I guarantee they will be fascinated. Good luck! (I'm not giving
up on chemicals - I intend to continue in my own darkroom in my "spare" time!)

Tina Manley 

Digital's great, but is this the way things should go? Digital technology is
great for Photojournalism, but I can's seem myself learning the fine art of
printing on a computer. Even as our newspaper has moved to scanning our
negatives I sometimes wish I could just make a finely dodged and burned print
with contrast filters I am familliar with and scan that. I wholeheartedly
support the introduction of Digital Technology into the classroom, cause it
part of the future, but I can't see myself abandoing the darkroom and silver
prints for some time. What happens when these kids, who may want to pursue
photography as a hobby, not necessarily as a profession, look at the price tag
for an outfit to develop, scan, and digitally print their photos?

I'd question the saving money part too. It seems that it's necessary to upgrade
technology every 5 years now. I got into photography by rummaging through the
attic and finding my Mom's 25 year old enlarger, trays, and tanks-I'm still
using them today, and have never felt the need to add more RAM, or buy the next
version of StainlessSteelReel 3.0
Eric M. Bakken - ba99em28@ACS.WOOSTER.EDU
Quite right Eric... I still remember the magic of seeing the image appear on a
blank sheet of paper... and photograms (where you place objects directly on the
paper - there's an idea for your class)...
Nowadays, it's still brill puting a print in the processor - a 4 mins later a
finished print drops out.
Realistically, very few people will, after leaving school, have the cash and
room to set up a darkroom - but most people will have a computer - and as the
processing power and memory creep up to the critical mass, along with good
output devices, MOST people will be able to create their own prints on their
own desktop (and probalbly in their bosses time!). However, without exposing
students to a real darkroom, they will not appreciate what can be done with
traditional methods - nor will full understand the terms used in programmes
like photoshop - actually using dodge and burn etc. Once you have done
something the original way, you can fully understand the tool on the computer.
When I first started to use D.T.P. I went along to on old letterpress printers,
and have handled real leading, em spaces etc, so when I come accross these
terms I can understand them - it also makes you realise just how easy some
things are when done on the computer.
David Clark, LMPA Professional Portrait & Wedding Photographer
Clark Photographers, 32 High Street, Laurencekirk, Scotland
cphoto@globalnet.co.uk Phone +44 1561 377477 Fax +44 1561 377438
It's the way things probably will go, at least as far as commercial photography
goes. I agree with you that it would be a shame to abandon the darkroom
completely. However, commercially, it is necessary to move into the future with
digital imaging. In fact, in photojournalism and editorial photography
particularly, if you don't go digital, you'll be left behind. You can't beat
the speed or ease of digital manipulation compared to working in the darkroom.
The price of digital cameras is coming down to the level where the average
person can afford them, so probably will soon be buying digital cameras instead
of regular film cameras. The price of computers is still coming down, and most
homes have one. But, how many homes have a darkroom, or the space for one? I
agree in the long run that a darkroom will be much cheaper to set up and
maintain than a computer set up for digital imaging, but it probably wouldn't
get as much use as the computer would.
There's nothing like the thrill of watching the image on your first print
appear, and having some darkroom experience would certainly benefit anyone
getting serious about photography. 
The past couple of years, I've spent very little time in my own darkroom. Part
of that is because of the computer. The other reason is that my darkroom is now
less than half the size of what I had in a previous house. I don't have the
space, nor time, to do colour anymore either. I would hate to have to give up
the darkroom completely after many years, but may eventually, due to time
constraints. I would miss it.
Gary Jones, gjones@generation.net

High School was a bit of a blur for me, but I rather enjoyed the fact that we
got to experiment and get the basics of several types of photography. We did
35mm, medium format and 4x5. By the third year of Visual Communications we
could even use the 4x5 without doing any damage. It's not outside of most
bugets to buy a twin lens reflex or two for medium format work, and they make a
good tool for a portrature assignment.
You've probably already seen students who want to go further than your
curriculum, I'd sugest just collecting some tools to help them and loose them
on the world. I liked the idea posted earlier about covering the work of famous
photographers (humble the teenagers, I always say).
Mainly I'd sugest that you cover the basics of photography at the beginning,
but by the end of the course you should be doing as much mentoring as teaching
from the curriculum.

Alex Polkovsky 
Grant MacEwan Community College, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada
Visit the LRC at http://www.gmcc.ab.ca/nw/lrc
1. Add color. Use a 1-hr photo place for the students to get their stuff 
processed. Add color theory, and color harmony, and color psychology.
2. Go digital. If the school has a computer lab, get coupled to that teacher, 
see if you can buy a scanner and Adobe Photoshop. Then let the kids have at 
Bill Jacobus, Toledo, Ohio - 

For the "kids" I recommend PhotoFinish, which is very simple to use, very
inexpensive (Egghead sells it for $49; I paid $29 by mail), and will do 75% of
what Photoshop will do (and easier). 
Sil Horwitz, FPSA, Technical Editor, PSA Journal, silh@iag.net

40.07     -< Three Most Important Highlights in History of Photography >-
> I'm preparing to interview for a temporary teaching position, and one
> question is: "What are the three (3) most important highlights in the history
> of photography."
1.) The invention of film (Nieiece) and photography
2.) Eastman's roll film camera (photography for everyone)
3.) Stieglitz's gallery "291" (photography accepted as art)
From: jbartlo@indyunix.iupui.edu
Let me add a few things in particular since the history of  photography started
in Europe.
Nicephore Niepce who died 1833 has started his different researches  in 1816
and experimented different supports such as paper, glass,  stone, metal covered
with a photosensible material. He obtained rather good results and it was his
merit to have found  the first stable image.
In 1829 Niepce associated with Daguerre and only as of then a real  development
in chemical photography started. and the so called  "daguerreotype" were born. 
The celebrity of the above two brought two other "new" inventions. In 1839 W.H.
Fox Talbot informed by the researches of Daguerre,  claimed having also made
similar researched far before Daguerre in  using paper dipped in a AG salt
Louis-Jacques Mande Daguerre died 1851.
Some of his pictures such as "Vue du Boulevard du Temple, Paris" are if I am
correct exposed at the Musee Caravalet, Paris/France.
I leave on purpose out all different other stages such as Calotype. Suggest you
look at pictures of Hippolyte Bayard or Baron Humbert de  Molard.
The second important step was know doubt the discovery of the so  called
"Leica-Format" eg. 24x36 mm. Suggest you are looking at your Library to get
hold of the Leica-book and you have to complete history.
With regards to the third major step in photography...I am afraid  here the
meanings will be different, but I would mean the "Colour  Photography", which
first was used in Germany (AGFA). Now some will possibly argue what about
Kodak....but if my memory is  not making any mistake, it was AGFA who
discovered first the colours  film (movie) followed by transparency
photographic films.
You will find in the US Second World War Archives a Color-Film showing  a
Military Parade of the German Army in Berlin and I believe this was  at
From: Pieter Wenk 
1.- the discovery of the action of light on silver salts, just as Andrew
pointed out 
2.- The incorporation of Color Technology.
3.- The incorporation of Digital Techology.
I would also briefly comment on the importance of improvements on lenses and
cameras, film formats/emmulsions and even the motion picture invention. IMO
these are more directly related to other fields, such as optics, etc...

From: Alberto Tirado 
Here's my simplified list of important highlights. After studying Photo History
for a while it seems that every event is an important one to our short history. 
1. Discovery of Daguerreotypes-because this got the world excited  about
2. Alfred Steigletz- for his many opinions about photography and  its place in
the art world.   
3. Kodak- for making photography available to the masses. 
From: "R.B. Wilkins" 
Arizona State University, School of Art

Probably the rise of rapid high quality 35mm mass color processing at low cost
would be one of the most significant modern contributions to photography. It
has produced a folk record of remarkable value and accuracy. 
The invention of motion picture film which made 35mm still photography
The marketing of Tri-X which invigorated Existing Light B&W photography

From: Afterswift@aol.com
I would put the emphasis on images which were mass produced and really
signalled a fundamental shift in how humans look at the world. Here's my
1. The first image showing a candid living human being. It was a man standing
in a street around the 1840's? I think he had one leg propped up on something.
2. Edweard Muybridge's motion studies of horses. These showed that at some
point in the gallop all four legs were off the ground. this was not observable
before photography.
3. The first photograph of the earth rising from the Lunar surface taken from
Apollo 8.
From: Russell J Rosener 
I think if you're going to include Stieglitz in any list of pivotal "events" in
the history of photography, you should spell his name correctly.  If he's so
important, he deserves that much consideration.  Seriously, any listing of the
3, 10, 100, or 1000 most important events, things, issues, or people in any
field is highly subjective.  It's an interesting, although ultimately futile,
That being said, I would suggest:
1.  The use of light-sensitive snail slime by the ancient Phoenicians to make
    purple dye.
2.  The discovery of the principle of the camera obscura.
3.  The discovery of the light sensitivity of silver salts.
Regarding an earlier post in this thread, I don't think Niepce used "film."
From: David Haberstich, DavidH5994@aol.com

What a delightful waste of time: I'll go for the big events:
1. The Daguerreotype -- the start. Certainly not the earlist start, but the
point when first critical mass was achieved.
2. The Kodak -- the next level. There were many major advances before this
point (wet plates, dry plates, etc.) but this was the next major escalation.
NOTE: Major events in "Art" photography took place throughout -- but in the big
picture "Art" photography is hardly signifcant.
3. Unless this is limited to still photography my third choice is Edison's
motion picture camera.
3. If this is limited to still photography then I'll opt for the development of
photo-mechanical printing.
From: Joe Angert <0007372155@mcimail.com>
St. Louis Community College
Unfortunately without technological innovations the aesthetic ones would have
been impossible. Now the question then might be what is more important: the
photograph that was made after the technology was developed or the technology
that made the photograph possible?
Since without the technology the image could never have been made there is a
strong argument I believe that technology is the more important fact over
history ... but it will be interesting to see the development of this "thread".
Anyway, the discovery of the action of light on silver salts might be a
starting point, the fixing of the effect of light on silver salts and the
development/design of color film might be three historically significant events
in the history of photography.
On the applications side Life Magazine (or the photo-illustrated magazine) is 
probably in there somewhere, the Farm Security Administaration project, and
maybe something like the f64 Group, and Stieglitz's gallery/exhibition efforts.
From: Andrew Davidhazy, ANDPPH@ritvax.isc.rit.edu

40.08          -< A couple more labs that process IR Ektachrome (E-4) >-

JHU Pathology Photo Lab
100 Pathology- Johns Hopkins Hospital
Baltimore, MD 21205
(301)995 3843

From: Mary Ann Tromans 

IR processing:  Jonathan Penney,  Black & White Darkroom,  6 Adelaide Park,
Center Moriches, NY 11934.   Willard Gill

From: Willard Gill, WRG5534@aol.com

40.09          -< Hand Coloring - materials and instructions >-
> We have been trying to find information on hand coloring black and white
> photographs with oils for a high school project.  If you can help us, we
> would appreciate it!  Thank you!
Marshall's Photo Oils.  Cool stuff--took a hand-coloring workshop recently,
and had a blast.
From: Nick Cuccia 

I'm new to this list and to photography in general.  However I rescued a 
collection of 2500 images and 6000 negatives taken abetween 1909 and  1933. 
Among the items I found was a set of Marshall's transparent  permanent
photo-oil colors, manufactured by John G. Marshall Mfg. Co.,  Inc. 167 North
9th St. Brooklyn 11, NY.  Since they are so old I suspect  the Marshall firm no
longer exists, but its worth a try. (see below)
From: " S. Joan Turner Link" 
The last I heard Marshall's colors were still available, as is their book on
hand coloring with the oils. But if you find them difficult to obtain
(aren't many "traditional" photo stores anymore), there is another line sold
by art stores: Shiva transparent oils. They work very well.
Crash course: to handcolor using oils, you use cotton balls or q-tips and
spread the color over the area, then remove with clean cotton. Enough will
remain for the color you desire. To remove, use lighter fluid or any
petroleum solvent. Some papers require treatment; this is done in the
Marshall system with a "Medium" - for the Shiva, you can spread clear color
over the whole surface and wipe all off that you can.
(Just as a note: my first part-time job as a kid was doing oil coloring for
a portraitist. It's very easy.)
From: Sil Horwitz, FPSA
Technical Editor, PSA Journal
They're very much still in existence.  They've moved to the Chicago area,
and are sold by, among other retailers, Freestyle Sales Co.  Check out the
Freestyle web site at:
Marshall's makes both oil colors and oil-based pencils, and has also produced
both a book and a video on hand-coloring.
Freestyle also carries two other lines of hand-coloring oils.
From: Nick Cuccia 
I have done quite a bit of hand coloring over the past few years.  Based on
this experience, I suggest the following:
1.  Use a matte surface paper.  Ordinarily, I strongly prefer fiber based
paper - I use "Germany's Finest" Orwo paper from Freestyle - and there are
other brands that work well.  However, for a high school class you may want
to use RC paper, and Kodak and a paper which they advertise specifically for
hand coloring.
2.  Tradition says that prints to be hand colored should be toned in sepia
or some other warm brown.  I think this is because hand coloring was often
used on portraits and toning helps build up skin tones.  Toning isn't really
3.  I suggest starting simple.  Get a set of Marshall's pencils (from
Freestyle, Light Impressions, Porters Camera Store, or any other very large
dealer).  This set will include a small bottle of PMS Solution - a mixture
of high-quality vegetable oil and turpentine.  It will also include a small
wooden stick and a wad of cotton - but this will not be enough to do much.
So, also buy a box of cotton swaps at the drug store.  You will also need
some cotton balls which are also available at the drug store.
4.  The process is to first tape a finished print onto a sheet of board - I
use heavy cardboard.  Put a little of the PMS on a ball of cotton, and wipe
this over the face of the print.  The idea is to work a little of the PMS
into the emulsion.  Don't try to saturate the print - if you use too much of
the PMS, and if your coloring is intentionally faint, the PMS may eventually
discolor the print.   Then, carefully apply color using the edge of the
pencils - NOT THE POINT.  Lay in the color but don't try to be too perfect
at this point.  After you have applied the color, rub it down using a cotton
swap (or for large areas, a cotton ball).  This step blends the color and
rubs it into the surface of the print.  Use a circular motion to work up to
edges.  Don't worry about going over the edges - work up to htem from one
side with one color, then up to them from the other side with another color.
It's easier to do than to describe.
5.  Obviously, it's preferable to start in the middle of the print and work
out toward the edges.
6.  Other brands of pencils work well also.  Berol's artists pencils are
good, as are Walnut Farm Art Pencils.
7.  If you get good at this, you can move up to oil paints.  However, my
experience is that pencils are far easier to use than paints, less
expensive,, and are more than adequate for most applications.
8.  Borders and be a problem.  The simplest thing is to don't worry about
borders, and after the print is done, either trip off the border, or use an
overmat to cover theredges of the print.  Marshall's makes a product called
Marlene which can be used to remove color from borders (or from whites in
the eyes in portraits) which more experienced practicioners can use.  I take
the easy way out - I mask off the border using 3M "Artist's Tape" - a
high-grade white masking tape - and just peal it off after I'm done.
9.  Important - prints which have been hand-colored with oils need time to
dry.  I suggest a minimum of one-week before removing them from the support
backing board - and longer if you use oil paints.
10.  I prefer to spray my hand-colored prints with a protective lacquer -
either Krylon Matte Plastic Spray, or Grumbacher's Damar Varnish (which also
seems to take a couple of lifetimes to dry).
There are at least two other brands of oil materials on the market -
Veronica Cass (the retouching people ) and Pebeo.   However, Marshall's is
the brand that has been around since the dinasaurs. 
The first print I ever hand colored (and which consider to be one of my
finest pieces) was done dry (no PMS) using cheap colored pencils from the
dime store.  The subject was an antique Chinese vase, and the cheap pencils
couldn't produce really intense color.  The subtle tonalities are wornderful.

From: LJPowell@ix.netcom.com (Louie Powell)
I teach black and white photography to high school students.  I generally use
water color paints to colorize photographs.  This works quite well.
From: Claudia Palermo, clp19@columbia.edu

Use Kodak PhotoArt paper and Marshall Oils or pencils.  It's not hard and
it's lots of fun to do!  Good luck - Tina

From: Tina Manley 
I can recommend two books on handcoloring photographs.  The first, and I think
the better one, is by Judy Martin and Annie Colbeck, *Handtinting Photographs:
Materials, Techniques, and Special Effects* (Cincinnati, Ohio: North Light
Books, 1989; 1507 Dana Avenue, Cincinnati, Ohio 45207; $29.95; ISBN
0-89134-303-2).  The second is by James McKinnis, *Handcoloring Photographs:
How to Create Color Images from Black-and-White Photographs* (New York:
Amphoto, 1994; BPI Communications, Inc., 1515 Broadway, New York, New York
10036; $24.95; ISBN 0-8174-3972-2).
Both books give advice on preparing photographs for coloring, and review the
many ways of doing so: oils, oil pencils, color markers, photographic dyes, and
so on.  I've also used watercolors and watercolor pencils, but these are more
difficult to work with as the paper must be kept wet while one is applying the
Your choice of paper is also important.  Kodak has recently offered a new
paper, P-Max Art RC, that is made especially for handcoloring.  It's a matte
surface with "tooth."  It is, however, available only as a graded paper, with
both grades 2 and 3 as choices.  From Kodak's description: Symbol, V; Texture,
suede; Surface, double matt; Base Tint, white; and Base Weight, Heavy.  Its
catalogue number is 165 5513; and the publication describing it is G-28.  I
imagine that Kodak will be happy to send G-28 to you at no charge:
Good luck.
From: "David L. Rayfield" 

John G. Marshall Mfg. Co. The latest address I have for them is PO Box
649, Deerfield, Il 60015

From: LJPowell@ix.netcom.com (Louie Powell)

40.10        -< Making your own bellows - instructions, supplies >-
>If anyone on the forum has any information, suggestions, tips, pointers, on 
>the making of camera bellows for large format cameras, I'd like to hear them.

I've made many bellows for different size cameras. Here's how to do it.
1. Learn how to fold the bellows -- practice with brown paper bags.
2. The leather choice is important. Get a skiver large enough to do the job. A
skiver is a split lambskin -- it's very thin and flexible.
3. The skiver alone is too flexible and will not hold the bellows shape by
itself. Go to a fabric store and get some sheer synthetic curtin material.
4. Completely coat (thin) the inside of the leather with a leather formulated
contact cement. Adhere the fabric to the leather and give it a day to dry.
5. Use black shoe dye to dye the inside surface of the leather/fabric.
6. The leather should now still be flexible enough to fold but stiff enough to
hold the bellows shape.
7. Draw the out line of the bellows in pencil on the outside of the leather and
begin folding.
8. Use the contact cement to close the seam (should face down in the camera).
9. Use red or black shoe dye to dye the outside of the leather.
From: Joe Angert <0007372155@mcimail.com>
St. Louis Community College
Ordinarily I just lurk, but this thread has been going on for several days,
now, and I have not noticed the following information so far:

Source for Bellows Making Materials and Book:
1372 La Playa Street
San Francisco, CA  94122
(Yes, that is the entire name.) They offer:
Leather in several colors . . . $4-5 per square foot.
Two layer cloth and synthetic bellows material . . . inner layer/$8 per
square foot; outer layer/$6 per square foot; inner and outer layer combined
price $12 per square foot. Focal plane cloth (0.19mm thick) $8 per square foot.
As far as I know, they don't deal by phone.  You have to write for samples
and then send in a written order.
The book is:  Bellows Making Text, Edward H. Romney . . . $12.98
From: granson@nanospace.com (Grant Wilson)

=========================== end of section 40 ============================== 
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