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    FAQ or Answers to Frequently Asked Questions                  Section 23
    This is a file containing answers, tips, hints and guidelines associated 
    with recurring  questions asked by photographers.   If you would like to 
    add a tidbit of knowledge to  this list just send it to   ANDPPH@rit.edu 
    who will gladly add it to this collection. 
                      These files are available in SECTIONS. 
             This is Section 23 and its contents are listed below.

      23.01  -< Speed Graphic FAQ file >- 
      23.02  -< Physical Development Process >- 
      23.03  -< Electronic Flash Circuit - fundamental >-
      23.04  -< DX demystified and controlled >-
      23.05  -< Photo Discussion Groups on the Internet >-
      23.06  -< Sprayable/Brushable Emulsion Source >- 
      23.07  -< Guide Numbers - what are they? >-

Note  23.01                -< Speed Graphic FAQ file >- 
From:	IN%"tim@me.rochester.edu"  "Tim Takahashi"  4-JUN-1994 19:47:35.33

Here is the version received on June 4, 1993:


Editors: William Caloccia and Timothy Takahashi

with additional material from
   Ronald Wisner <72072,2763@compuserve.com>
   Roger Paulson 
   David Rosen   
   Mike Rosenlof 
   Thorn Roby    
   David Smigelskis 

Related Newsgroups:  rec.photo

Revision History
Initially Released:  March 10, 1994  wpc, tt
Lenses updated       March 17, 1994  ds, tt

INTRODUCTION: Photography with GRAPHIC and GRAFLEX cameras

The is a tendency for the name 'Speed Graphic' to be used to denote
any "press" style camera. The Speed Graphic was manufactured by
Graflex, a Rochester, New York based camera producer. It was the
dominant portable professional camera from the 1930's through the
end of the 1950's.

The 'Speed Graphic' and their brethren, the 'Crown Graphic' and
'Century Graphic' are remarkable cameras capable of the highest
quality of work.  The 'Speed Graphic' has not been manufactured
since 1973 and most photographers today are unable to make a
direct comparison*. In many ways, the 'Speed Graphic' was America's
first and last great camera.

The 'Speed Graphic' was engineered for general purpose commercial
photography such as wedding, portaiture, product, documentary,
advertising and landscape photography. Otha Spencer writes in

    "After the war, I bought a Pacemaker Speed Graphic and
    started a commercial and portrait studio. With the Speed
    Graphic, a 4x5 Super-D Graflex, one reflector flood light,
    one background light and a primitive darkroom, I became a
    commercial photographer."

The 'Speed Graphic' camera has two shutters - focal plane and in-lens;
three viewfinders - optical, wire frame and ground glass;
interchangeable lenses; a rise and fall front; lateral shifts; a
coupled rangefinder; and a double extension bellows adaptable to lenses
from 90mm to over 300mm.

The Speed Graphic looks complicated, but is a one of the simplest
and most flexible cameras made. Afflicted by a "Rube Goldberg
variety of features - three viewfinders! - you prove your skill
everytime you use it. Nothing in the Graphic is automated; if
you don't pay attention you can double expose, shoot blanks, fog
previous exposures or shoot out of focus images. However, once you
get used to it, it is amazingly easy to use.

The older Graflex SLR with its patented focal plane shutter and
reflex focusing had been so successful as a press camera that
the Graflex company set out to design a camera specifically for
the emerging "press" photographer. The result was the original
'Speed Graphic' of 1912.

The concept of having two separate shutters was a new idea.
The focal plane shutter was the same as used in the Graflex,
the front in-lens shutter provided extra versatility. Because
both shutters can not be used at the same time, there is possibility
of confusion. Experienced 'Speed Graphic' users find selection
of shutters second nature.

In 1940, Graflex announced the Anniversary Speed Graphic with
Kodak Anastigmat (or the then all-new Ektar) lens. The new
features included the coupled rangefinder and flash solenoid
to use the then popular flashbulb. The bed would drop past
horizontal, allowing the use of the then new wide angle lenses.

The Speed Graphic was the still camera of World War II, and
took many famous images striking today for their technical
and artistic beauty. On the home front, Arthur Fellig, aka.
Weegee, prowled the streets of New York with his Speed Graphic.
He writes in his 1945 monograph "Naked City" :

    "The only camera I use is a 4x5 Speed Graphic with a Kodak Ektar
    lens in a Supermatic Shutter. All-American made. The film I use
    is Kodak Super-Panchro Press B. I always use a flashbulb for
    my pictures which are mostly taken at night...

    If you are puzzled about the kind of camera to buy, get a
    Speed Graphic.... for two reasons.... it is a good camera,
    and moreover.... with a camera like that the cops will assume
    that you belong on the scene and will let you get behind
    police lines."

In 1947, the Pacemaker Speed Graphic was introduced bristling
with new features such as a body mounted shutter release and
simplified focal plane shutter (now with 6 normal speeds rather
than the 24 speeds possible before).

The "Graflok" back, with a metal focusing hood and removable ground
glass was introduced in 1949. This back, the standard for 4x5"
view cameras today accepts sheet film holders, roll film adaptors,
the now obsolete film pack, cut film magazines (the Grafmatic) and
the Polaroid back.

The 'Speed Graphic,' like other 'press' cameras is designed to be
operated either handheld or on a tripod. In this sense, there is
a kinship between the 'Speed Graphic' and 35mm gear. In the larger
format world "kinship to 35mm" can not be considered equivalence of
features or toys. The 4x5" Speed Graphic could not be farther from
modern 35mm gear in terms of construction or configuration. Yet with
a Grafmatic one can go shoot six successive images handheld using
shutter speeds as high as 1/1000 sec.

The company name changed several times over the years as it was
absorbed and then released by the Kodak empire, finally becoming
a division of the Singer Corporation and then dissolved in 1973.
The award winning Graflex plant in suburban Pittsford, New York
is still standing and is home to the MOSCOM Corporation.

Years      Manufacturer
- - - - -  - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
188?-1904  Folmer & Schwing Manufacturing Co., NY, NY
1905-1927  Folmer & Schwing Div., Eastman Kodak Co. Rochester, NY
1928-1946  Folmer Graflex Corp., Rochester, NY
1946-1955  Graflex Inc., Rochester, NY
1956-1968  Graflex Inc., Div. General Precision Equipment, Rochester, NY
1968-1973  Graflex Inc., Div. SINGER CORPORATION
1973       Tooling bought by Toyo Co.

Post 1940 Graphic style cameras may be considered usable cameras,
rather than antique or collectible cameras. The Speed Graphic was
manufactured in a number of sizes, 4x5" being the most common, but
also in 2.25x3.25" 3.25x4.25" and 5x7"

Produced   Model name and description
- - - - -  - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

1958-1973  Super Graphic
1961-1970  Super Speed Graphic (Graflex-1000 1/1000 front shutter)
           All metal body, including flash computer, electric shutter
           release, front standard had swing capability, & featured
           revolving back.  [NO focal plane shutter !]

1947-1973  Pacemaker Crown Graphics (4x5,3.25x4.25,2.25x3.25)
1947-1970  Pacemaker Speed Graphics (4x5,3.25x4.25,2.25x3.25)
1949-1970  Century Graphic (2.25x3.25)

	   Post war brought coated lens and lenses in shutters, body
	   release, folding infinity stops. The plastic bodied 'Century
           Graphic' and mahogany/metal 'Crown Graphic' were w/o focal
           plane shutters.  Imported 2.25" cameras led to the design of
           the roll film holders, and the Graflok back (1949).  Flat bar
           viewfinder, followed by flexible wire viewfinder. Side mounted
           rangefinder replaced by top rangefinder on 4x5" Graphics in 1955.

1940-1946  Anniversary Speed Graphic (3.25x4.25 and 4x5")
	   No grey metal exposed, satin black with chrome trim.
	   Wartime model: no chrome.  Bed and Body track rails linked,
	   allowing focusing of wide angle lens w/in body.
	   Solid wire frame viewfinder.

1939-1946  Miniature Speed Graphic (1st small 2.25x3.25" model)

1928-1939  ``Pre-Anniversary'' Speed Graphic (3.25x4.25, 4x5, 5x7)
	   4x5 - wire hoop viewfinder has curved top

1912-1927  ``Top Handle'' Speed Graphic  3.25x4.25, 4x5, 3.25x5.5, 5x7



Since we are talking about 30-50 year old equipment, you can't buy one
at your local K-Mart. The best way to find a Speed Graphic is to
purchase a copy of Shutterbug Magazine and peruse the ads, or visit
your local camera flea market.

Recent prices vary widely from $300 and up for a beat Speed Graphic to
$150 for a Crown Graphic in great shape with Kodak 127mm f4.7 lens,
filters, 11 normal 4x5 film holders; 1 4x5 film pack adaptor, flash,
bulbs, and case.

* Similar cameras by other manufacturers

The Toyo 45a Field Camera ($1550) and Horseman 45FA Camera ($2700)
are perhaps the closest current production cameras and could be
compared to the Super Graphic.  The Toyo weighs in at 6+ pounds, 
while the Horseman (at 3.75 pounds) is set up to be handheld.

There are other 4x5 Field Cameras, but they are more of the classic
wood box tradition, and are generally not constructed so as to be 
suitable for hand-holding.


 Lenses for a 4x5" are specialized. You can group view camera lenses
 into 4 broad categories:
 1. General Purpose lenses - for work 4'-infinity - mostly older lenses
    these are usually of the "tessar" type and can be fairly fast (f/4.5)
 2. Symmetrical (wide field) lenses - useful for closeup work and
 3. Extreme Wide Angle lenses
 4. Special effects lenses  (Telephoto / Soft focus)
 The major American view camera lens manufacturers are Kodak, Wollensak
 (OEM supplier for Graflex), and Ilex. Bausch and Lomb was a
 manufacturer in the pre-war period. Other common manufacturers are
 Carl Zeiss Jena, Schneider-Kreuznach and Meyer-Goerz-Optik.
 1. General Purpose lenses - for work 4'-infinity - mostly older lenses
    these are usually of the "tessar" type and can be fairly fast (f/4.5)
 General Purpose Lenses: mostly Tessar type, 4 elements, 3 groups
    Manufacturer Lens Brand	Shutter		Typical Focal Lengths
    ------------ ------------	------------	---------------------
    Kodak	Ektar		Supermatic	127, 152
    Schneider	Xenar		Syncho Compur	127, 135, 150, 180
    Graflex     Optar           Graphex         135, 162, 210
    Graflex     Optar           Synchro Compur  135
    Wollensak	Raptar		Rapax		127, 135, 162, 190, 210
    Ilex	Acutar		(various)	165
    Rodenstock	Ysarex		Prontor		127

    Schneider   Xenotar         Synchro Compur  135
    Zeiss       Planar          Synchro Compur	135
 Kodak, Schneider, Wollensak made lenses of approximately the same
 focal length. Thus there are equivalent choices in a given focal
 length between a Ektar, Xenar or Optar.

 Most Graflex Optars are made by Wollensak, but later (post 1965) Optars
 are manufactured by Rodenstock.

 These lenses are 3 group/4 element "Tessar" type lenses with a 55
 degree circle.  The Ektars were probably the best all around quality,
 with Xenars next, and Raptars and Acutars third.  They are fairly close
 if in good repair and not mistreated.

 The Polaroid 110,110A and 110B roll-film cameras can often be found
 very inexpensively. They are fitted either with a Rodenstock Ysarex
 127/4.5 or Wollensak Rapter 127/4.5.
 In discussing the various post WWII coated lenses mention should also be
 given to German suppliers.  Due to manufacturing, supply, and legal
 problems, there were relatively few post-war Zeiss Tessars made.


 Non Tessar type - usually 3/5 type - post war lenses of superb quality
 include the Voigtlander Heliars and Apo-Lanthars, the Schneider Xenotar
 and the Zeiss Planar. However, they are extremely expensive for a lens
 with a 50-degree image circle.
 2. Symmetrical (wide field) lenses - useful for closeup work and
 General Purpose Lenses: 4-element/4-group, 6-element/2-group, etc.
    Manufacturer Lens Brand	Shutter		Typical Focal Lengths
    ------------ ------------	------------	---------------------

    Kodak	W.F.Ektar	Supermatic	 80, 100, 135
    Kodak      Ektar           Supermatic      203
    Schneider	Symmar		Syncho Compur	100, 135, 150, 180, 210
    Schneider  Angulon         Synchro Compur   90, 120

    Graflex	Optar W.A	Graphex		 90
    Wollensak  Raptar W.A.	Rapax		 90

    Goerz	Dagor (f6.8)			 5",6",6.5",7",8.25",to 14"
    Goerz	Super Dagor (f8)		 3 5/8", 4 3/8", 6.5"
    Focal Length (mm)        90   100  127  135  150  180  203  210
    Focal Length (inches)    3.5    4   5   5.25  6    7    8    8.25   
Notes : Schneider Symmar 

 Symmars (coated, post-WWII)  come in 100, 135, 150, 180 and 210, all
 in Syncho Compurs.  Even though these are "convertible", they are poor
 when used that way.  Later 'Symmar S's from the 70s, more expensive,
 have even better coating and wider circle of illumination, but are much
 more expensive.  However the Symmars are still excellent lenses.
Notes : Kodak WF Ektars

 The two Kodak WF Ektars need to be stopped down considerably to equal
 in sharpness to the General Purpose Tessar lenses mentioned the the first
 section when used as wide-angle lenses.  They are less even in illumination
 across the same field of view in comparision to a Symmar.

 Sharper at wide apertures than the 90mm Angulon, etc. The 135mm WF Ektar
 was reccomended for General Purpose use on 4x5 monorail view cameras..

Notes : 90mm Wollensak W/A, Graflex

 The Graflex W/A Optar, really a Wollensak Raptar W/A is another
 older wide-angle lens. Acceptibly sharp when stopped down, f/6.8
 is for focusing only. Use at f/11-32. Of similar design to WF Ektar.
Notes : Kodak Ektar 203mm
 The Kodak Ektar, 203mm/f7.7, has a 50 degree angle of coverage. It
 is a very old 4-element air-spaced design and has remarkable sharpness
 from infinity to close up. Being slow, f/7.7, it is fairly small and
 light. Sharpest wide-open.

Notes : Dagor/Angulon
 The Dagor and the Schneider Angulon are true symmetricals (f6.8) but 
 can cover over 70 degrees at f22 and 80 degrees at f45. They are of
 six-element, two-group construction. With so few air-glass interfaces
 they are resistant to flare - uncoated Dagors will be acceptible.

 3. Extreme Wide Angle lenses
    Schneider Super Angulon    90mm      f/8
                               90mm      f/5.6
                               65mm      f/8
    Rodenstock Grandagon
    Zeiss Biogon
 These lenses are much more expensive than any lens in either the General 
 Purpose or Symmetrical category sections. This is especially ture for the
 Biogons which are magnificent but totally out of sight in terms of $.
 4. Special effects lenses
    These long focal length lenses are not ususally hand-held.
   4a. Telephoto
    Graflex Tele-Optar        270mm f6.5 (Graflex-1000, 1/1000 shutter)
    Graflex Tele-Optar        380mm (15") f/5.6 (barrel)
                              250mm (10") f/5.6 (barrel)
 The lenses list are only a small selection of what is available.
 Telephoto lenses have a small image circle and use proportionally
 less bellows draw than their focal length suggests. The only way
 to get 380mm of lens onto a Speed Graphic.

 Generally this type of lens does not really allow for movements on
 a 4x5.  But this issue of what lenses for what purposes on a 4x5 is a
 much broader issue not really appropriate to go into furhter in this FAQ

   4b. Soft Focus
    Rodenstock Imagon

 A used 'Speed Graphic' will typically be found fitted with a General
 Purpose lens. The Kodak Ektar or Graflex Optar are common. These vintage
 lenses (127mm Ektar, 135mm Optar ) do not have sufficient coverage to
 allow the use of movements when focused at infinity.
 Beware : Sharpness falls off much faster than illumination.
 When checking out an older shutter note that there are separate springs
 for slow(<1/30), medium and high speeds (over 1/250). Check all speeds
 and exercise the shutter.  If you desire to use a flash, be sure to
 check for flash synchronization.  'X' mode is for electronic flashes,
 while 'M' mode is for flash bulbs, there may be other synchronization
 positions on the switch.  Many camera repair shops can clean and
 check shutters for accuracy. 
 Lens Storage
 It is generally recommended that lenses be stored set to their lowest
 speeds, or 'T' (when available), as this leaves the springs in an
 uncompressed state.



    Focal Lengths as given are nearly equivalent, and may represent
    available lenses.

Film Size               35mm    120       2"x3"    4"x5"
Image Format          24x36mm  56x68mm     "        "
Film Type               roll    roll     sheet    sheet
------------            -----  ------    ------    ------
Fisheye                 18mm    37mm      ----     ----

Ex. Wide Angle          20mm              ----     65mm
                        24mm    50mm      47mm     ----
                        28mm    65mm      53mm     90mm (3-1/2")
Moderate Wide Angle                               100mm (4")
                        35mm    75mm      65mm    127mm (5")
                        40mm              75mm    135mm (5-1/4")
Normal                  50mm   110mm     100mm    152mm (6")
                        65mm   127mm     -----    203mm (8")
Moderate Telephoto      85mm   150mm     -----    250mm (10")
Medium Telephoto       100mm   210mm     202mm    -----
                       135mm   250mm     -----    380mm (15")

Long Telephoto         250mm   500mm     -----    -----
                       500mm   -----     -----    -----



The 'Speed Graphic' not really a view camera, you can't tie it up
into a pretzel. Depending on the sort of Photography one is interested
in, this may or may not be limiting. The rigidity of the Graphics make
them very useful for high-speed, wide-aperture shooting (the sort of
shot where extreme depth of field is not important). If you are
interested in a 4x5" to pursue photography suitable for 35mm or 2-1/4"
equipment, the motions are an extra, not an essential. There are other
large format photographers who disagree, their personal vision requires
the use of considerable amounts of perspective control.

To utilize movements, the photographer must use a lens that has
ample reserve covering power. In the vintage lens field, the
135mm WF Ektar, the 120mm Angulon,  or the longish 203mm f/7.7 Ektar
are possibilities.

Features:       Focusing Back

The pop-open focusing back can usually be removed from the holder by
two clips on the side.  This exposes the ground glass retaining clips.
The preferable set-up is to have a fresnel lens as with out it the
image when viewed will get darker as you one views from the center out
to the corners.

Always remember to watch the corners !

If you have a fresnel lens (circular grid on the glass), and the
corners are darker than the center, then you may have adjusted the
camera in such a way that the lens is not covering the area of the
film plane. Many of the standard 'Graflex' lens cover the area of
a 4"x5" sheet, but not much more.  Wide angle and wide field lenses
should be clearly marked with WA or WF, indicating they have a greater
coverage area than the diameter of the lens.

Also remember to switch from preview to shutter mode, and stop down the
lens as necessary before pulling the dark slide.

Depending on lighting, you may find a  magnifier and dark cloth or
light coat handy (to block out light while focusing on the screen).

Features:       Infinity Stops

The infinity stops are small tabs which fold over and are located
within the rails, held in place by two extremely small screws.  By
folding over the tabs, the lens can pass by the Infinity Stop, which
allows one to use multiple infinity stops, one for each different focal
length lens.

With the rails adjusted to the rear of the bed, and the lens focused on
infinity, you may set the infinity stops for each particular lens.

Features:       Focusing Scales

Are attached to a moving portion of the sliding rails, and to a fixed
portion of the bed, in front of the lens.  The scales, depending on the
lens, will generally have alignment marks for intervals from 6 to 25 feet,
as well as 50, 100 and Infinity.

Features:       Viewfinders

Cheesey Viewfinder:     Parallax adjustable, with various templates
                        for different lenses. Subject too small to see
			details while viewing.

Hoop Viewfinder:        Parallax adjustable, allows viewing of the
                        subject while taking pictures.

Kalart Rangefinders:    Side (steel) or Top (plastic) rangefinder which
                        is connected to the moving rails, see below.

Speed Graphics: The Focal Plane Shutter

In a real Speed Graphic the focal plane shutter is the only part that
might be trouble, but is reliable and there are shops dedicated to
fixing them.

Because of the Speed Graphic's focal plane shutter, is slightly heavier
than the similar Crown Graphic, also the depth required for a focal
plane shutter may preclude the user of certain very-wide-angle lens
(below 80mm), where a Crown Graphic may be able to use a 65mm WA lens.

The focal plane shutters operate as a curtain with different sized
openings, and can be set to two speeds with three different openings,
producing speeds of 1/30, 1/60, 1/125, 1/250, 1/500, and 1/1000.  Most
lenses with internal shutters will have speeds up to 1/400 or 1/500,
while the Graflex-1000 goes to 1/1000 seconds, there are some some
older ones only go as high as 1/200.

Be careful to know when the curtain is open and closed, as mis-use of
the focal plane shutter will keep film from being exposed (if you're
using a lens shutter), or leaving the curtain open (such as for focusing)
will fog film, if exposed to it.

An advantage of having a focal plane shutter is that you can also use
barrel lenses (w/o a shutter). A 15" (380mm) Graflex Optar Telephoto,
in a barrel mount is much less expensive (~$90) than the equivalent in
a shutter, which seem to go for $250-300. Also, many vintage (1920-30's)
soft focus portrait lenses are only available in barrel.

Use of a slow speed focal plane shutter should produce noticeable
"lean" when you pan to follow moving objects.

Are the large focal plane shutters accurate ?

I checked mine out. 1/1000 sec is dead on. Your average modern SLR
it is probably no more accurate.


Features:       Kalart Side Mounted Range Finder     [Up to 1955]

Side mounted Kalart rangefinders without interchangeable cams, can be
adjusted for a particular lens, if the proper (tedious) procedure is

Operation: The two images in the Kalart are the same color.  The split
portion shows up as a center spot.  This may become more apparent if
you place a colored piece of gel in front of one of the openings to the
Kalart.  [If the half silver mirror is abraised or otherwise lost
silvering, this image may be very faint.]  In general bring the split
image into alignment, and if the camera is in focus through-out the
scale, then the rangefinder is cammed or adjusted to the lens.

Here are some instructions for adjusting the Kalart.


The following 4 steps are to be followed in adjusting the Kalart

1. Check focus of lens at infinity - if necessary re-adjust infinity stops
2. Set Rangefinder for infinity
3. Adjust Rangefinder for 15ft
4. Adjust Rangefinder for 4ft.

1. Checking Focus of Lens at infinity

  The 1st step in synchronizing the RF is to establish the correct
  infinity position for the lens - if necessary relocating the camera
  infinity stops.

  Use a tall building, chimney, etc. at least 1/2 mile away as a

  Note: on Pacemaker Graphic (incl. Century) cameras - the track must be
  racked forwards to bring the image into focus at infinity.

2. Setting RF for infinity

  1st remove the cover over the RF, exposing the innards.
  In the event the RF is out of adjustment re-set it as follows:
  the infinity adjustment is made by turning the eccentric screw attacked
  to the rear of the right runner of the camera track. (this is where the
  long lever from the RF on the inside of the bed contacts the focusing
  track). You can use a dime to turn this screw. (the screw becomes
  visible when the track is raked very far forwards).

3. Adjusting 15ft.

  Focus the camera on something approximately 15ft away. use a magnifier
  to make absolutely certain of the sharpness of the image. to adjust,
  adjust the rear scale (loosen screw which protrudes through a slot
  immediately above the words "to loosen   <- -". this is a left-hand
  thread!! move the indicator on the rear scale. then tighten.

  Repeat the infinity check! (this may take several iterations)

4. Adjusting 4ft.

  Focus the camera to approx. 4ft. to adjust loosen the two screws which
  hold the indexed slider on the front of the rangefinder and slide
  the indicator to adjust. retighten screws.

  Repeat the infinity check! and 15ft.

  Approx. points of adjustment

CAMERA              LENS         Long Scale (Rear)  Short Scale (Front)

2x3                 101mm Optar        9.5                 2
		    105mm Tessar      10.5                 2
		    4 3/8"            13.0                 2
		    105mm f/3.7 Ektar 13.5                 2
CAMERA              LENS         Long Scale (Rear)  Short Scale (Front)

4x5                 127mm Ektar       13.0                 3
		    135mm Tessar      15.0                 3.5
		    152mm Ektar       17.0                 5

                     | \     |
                     |  \    |
                     |  o \  |  <- 1/2 silvered mirror, screw to adjust align
                     |       |       coincidence
                     : o     |  <- screw to loosen rear scale
 Rear scale pointer  # to    1  <- front scale numbers
                     : loosen2  
                     :       #  <- front scale slider
                     |       o  <- screw to loosen front slider
                     |       #
                     |       o  <- screw to loosen front slider
                     | \-    #
                     |  \|   |  <- prism

Features:       Kalart  Top Mounted Range Finder   [1955 and later]

Featuring interchangeable cams and Parallax Correction.

The cams are tricky to locate and are set up for specific lenses (a
caveat if your camera has a mismatched cam).

Features:       Graflok Back                       [1949 and later]

The 'Graflok Back' is a feature which IS desirable, and is a relatively
'late' enhancement to the Graphic line of camera.  These have the
removable focus panel and locks to hold various filmbacks.

Accessories:    Graphic ``Riteway'' Film Holders
Back Type:      Standard

Standard 2 sheet film holders.  [Used: ~$10. each]

Accessories:    Grafmatic Film Holders            (4x5 model: Cat. 1268)
Back Type:      Standard

The Grafmatic holder (not to be confused with the Graphic Pack Film
holders), will hold size sheets of film in one container.  The sheets
are held in individual steel widgets referred to as 'septums'.  As of
early 1994, the going prices were advertised as high as $80-$120, but
many individuals report sale prices less than that for holders in good

It is reported they made Grafmatic's for the older Graphics, which
have a slot instead of ridges for a light-trap on the film-plane side,
buyer beware.  Also, watch out for bent film holders, and don't force
the septums in or out. Try practicing loading and unloading in the light,
with spent film or developed sheets to get the hang of it.

They aren't difficult to use, but there are some subtleties in the

Once you put a negative up front, and pull the slide it will be set
to take the photo 'cause when you put the slide back it, it will be
behind the front one, and then it drops to the back.  Thus, if you
prepare the Grafmatic for use, and then decide to re-frame or whatever,
the unexposed negative is still up front.  Leave the holder in the
camera and cycle through the septums, back to the one you were on except
don't pull the darkslide on it. That way it's back on top, but not exposed.

Accessories:    Graphic Film Pack Adapter             (Cat. 1234)
Back Type:      Graflok

4"x5" 16 Exposure Pack Film (Tri-X, etc.) is no longer available.
Operation and packaging seem similar to a Polaroid Pack Film back.

Accessories:    Roll Film Backs
Back Type:      Graflok (usually)

There were 3 negative sizes, RH-8 (2.25" sq), RH-10 (2.25x2.75") and
RH-8 (2.25x3.25") and holders were made for 2.25x3.25,3.25x4.25 and
4x5" cameras with either Graflock or Graflex backs. Early film
holders, with the knob wind do not hold modern film flat, it bowes
approx. 3/32" towards the film - blowing focus at shallow f/stops.

It seems that lever wind units have the rollers and the knob wind
version do not.

A conversation with WD Service about this revealed that there were no
roller types made for 3x4. The problem may be subtle, hard to deduce
at first because you figure it was just field curvature or some

It also seems that there's a slight overall difference in the film
plane between my non-roller and roller versions (at least sometimes) -
but they measure the same. May be an artifact of the same problem.

Also, Horseman has current production Graflok roll-film holders, while
Calument sells non-Graflok roll film holders.

Accessories:    Polaroid Back
Back Type:      Standard

Three flavors exist.
   405  for 3.25x4.25 pack film
   550  for 4x5" pack film
   545i for 4x5" sheet film (ABS plastic, lighter, supposedly improved)
  (545) for 4x5" sheet film (steel/brass, black enamel)

An advantage of the 545(i) sheet film holders are that they allow you
to choose any film for any shot, and not be stuck with the same film for
a full pack (8 or 10 shots).  Useful if you're shooting 100 then 400,
and want to use the same speed test Polaroid. Ditto for color vs. B&W.
Accessories:    Miscellaneous

Cases, either civilian or military (O.D. Green).
  Ex. 10"x14"x20", velvet lined

Flashes, either civilian (chrome) or military (matt black).

2747  Graflex 7 in Reflector (large lamp socket for #11 or #22 bulbs)
2749  Graflex 5 in Reflector (small lamp socket -to large lamp socket
      right angle converter, for #B5 bulbs)
2712  Graflex Side Lighting Unit (large lamp socket)
2773  Graflex Synchronizer Battery Case (3 D-Cells)

Filter Kits:
   Series VI filter kit (filter holder, Y, G, R, sky, lens shade, in
   leather case).


As of 1993, Speed Graphic Western Division sold their stock of parts
to Midwest Photo Exchange (614-261-1264, fax 614-261-1637)

Midwest: Graphic Lens boards (for 4x5)  $12 + $4 shipping
         (prices subject change)


``The Pacemaker Graphics (Speed Graphic and Crown Graphic "45" "34" "23")
  Instruction and Reference Manual''
  42 pages, GRAFLEX, Inc., Rochester, NY 10/47

``The All-American Cameras: a review of GRAFLEX(r)'', Paine, Richard P.
  78 Pages  (used as a source of the historical information up top, as
  well as notes on the development of the Graphics)

``Grafmatic Film Holder Instruction Manual''
  6 pages, GRAFLEX, Rochester, NY

``Graphic Graflex Photography'' Morgan and Morgan (1940's through 60's)
  (200+ pages). An excellent guide to commercial photography with the
  Graphic and Graflex Cameras used as the tools of the trade.

Graflex Factory Repair manual, ~60 pages, details body repair (not


Useful accessories:

        Multiple Sheet film holders
        Light Meter & Notebook
        Lens Shade/Lens Filter Holder
        Cable Release for long exposures
        Dark cloth / light jacket / etc. to keep out light while focusing
        Lupe/Magnifier for checking focus
        A Polaroid Back (545/545i sheet holder)


- Do your own processing & darkroom work.

- Use Polaroids to while learning, and then check framing, exposure,
  corners, etc.

- Some say to shoot chromes instead of negs and let them be
  their own proofs.  You can make prints from the ones you like.

Note 23.02             -< Physical Development Process >- 

Physical development is of interest for two reasons, at least, as it gives an
additional tool for the study of the latent image and as it produces images of
unusually fine grain under the best conditions.

Physical development may be carried out after fixation, thus proving that the
latent image is of quite different nature than the silver halide itself. The
following steps may yield successful results if performed before fixation: 

1. Treat with potassium iodide bath
2. Rinse
3. Development in Silver-Salt bearing physical developer
4. Fixation
5.Washing and Drying.


Potassium Iodide                   10g
Sodium Sulphite(anhydrous)         25g
Water to make                       1 litre

Treat a negative in this bath for 20-30 minutes, rinse and immadiately proceed
to develop in a developer made up as described below: 


Sodium Thiosulfate (crystals)     160g
Sodium Sulphite (anhydrous)        60g
Silver Nitrate (crystals)          16g
Water to make                       1 litre

For use add 1 part stock silver solution to 4 parts of water and add reducing 
agent as described below.

To make up this stock silver solution dissolve the sodium sulphite in 300cc of
water, then dissolve the silver nitrate in 100cc of water and then add it to 
the sulphite solution stirring until the white curdy precipitate dissolves.

Dilute the whole to 950cc with water and then add the thiosulfate and stir
until a completely clear solution is obtained. Add water to bring volume to 1
litre. Filter through cotton and store in a brown bottle. Solution is fairly
stable and keeps well.

At the time of use of the developer, for each litre of diluted solution add
17 grams of Amidol (Metol), or for each 15 oz. of diluted solution add 12 gr of
Amidol, and stir until dissolved. The Amidol should not be added to the
solution more than 10 minutes before development is to commence.

With tray development 35 min. to 1 hour development time has been recommended
at 68 degrees. Metal containers for the developer should not be used. Glass or
plastic is much preferred.

This special silver bearing developer can be used for physical devlopment
after fixation if that is what is being attempted. Greatly increased exposures
are required over those needed with ordinary chemical development. Fixation
should be carried out in the dark, with rather neutral or alkaline hypo. Use of
acid fixers destroys the latent image by bleaching the weak silver image and use
of physical development may not be successful to "rescue" a negative fixed by
mistake before development. 

From: Handbook of Photography, by Henney and Dudley, 1939, McGraw-Hill Co. 

Note 23.03        -< Electronic Flash Circuit - fundamental >-
... so you want to build your own flash equipment...

It is probably cheaper to buy ready made than trying to build from scratch.
Also safer.  If you want to get a general idea how basic electronic flashes 
are put together (as well as some fundamental info on operating parameters) 
I suggest you try to get a copy of Harold "Doc" Edgerton's book: Electronic 
Flash, Strobe.  Softcover copy is available from the MIT Press in Cambridge, 
MA. for about $15

If you insist on building a basic unit and can handle the safety aspects of
such circuits ... here's a VERY basic circuit:

              10-20 ohm
          |           |            |                      |
       + 450 v        | 300uf      > 2 MegOhm            .-.
        __|__         | 450V       < .047 uf      .------|-|  Xenon
         ___        =====    .-----+--||--------. #      | |  Flashtube
        / | \         |      |     >            | #      | |
          |           |      |     < 2 MegOhm   # #      |_|
          |           |      |     |            | |       |
                             |   |         Step-Up (Trigger)
                             |   |            Transformer
                             V   V
                      camera sync contacts

The potential "power" in a circuit like this is given in Joules (watt.sec) by:

                     C  x V^2      (Capacitance in f times voltage squared)
                J = ----------
        *  *  * * *  *
         \/\/\/\/\/\/   Andrew Davidhazy, RIT, High Speed Photography Lab.
          |        |    IN%"andpph@ritvax.isc.rit.edu"    fax 716-475-5804 
_________/          \_____________________________________________________
Note 23.04             -< DX demystified and controlled >-
> Is there another way to fool my automatic camera's DX code sensing system?

There is a way to override a camera with automatic DX coding:  Recode the 
cassette yourself.  I posted this quite some time ago, but I guess there are a 
lot of new people on the net.

Here is the key to the DX code:

                |                        |
                |                        |_
                |________________________| |
                |12 |11 |10 | 9 | 8 | 7  | |
                | 6 | 5 | 4 | 3 | 2 | 1  |

ISO             SENSING AREA
SPEED           2       3       4       5       6

  25            -       -       -       X       -
  32            -       -       -       -       X
  40            -       -       -       X       X
  50            X       -       -       X       -
  64            X       -       -       -       X
  80            X       -       -       X       X
 100            -       X       -       X       -
 125            -       X       -       -       X
 160            -       X       -       X       X
 200            X       X       -       X       -
 250            X       X       -       -       X
 320            X       X       -       X       X
 400            -       -       X       X       -
 500            -       -       X       -       X
 640            -       -       X       X       X
 800            X       -       X       X       -
1000            X       -       X       -       X
1250            X       -       X       X       X
1600            -       X       X       X       -
2000            -       X       X       -       X
2500            -       X       X       X       X
3200            X       X       X       X       -
4000            X       X       X       -       X
5000            X       X       X       X       X

EXPOSURES       8       9       10

(non-std)       -       -       -
   12           X       -       -
   20           -       X       -
   24           X       X       -
   36           -       -       X
   48           X       -       X
   60           -       X       X
   72           X       X       X

 RANGE          11      12

+- 1/2          -       -
+- 1            X       -
+2, -1          -       X
+3, -1          X       X

NOTE:  An "X" under the sensing area indicates an electrically
conductive area.  A "-" under the sensing area indicates an
electrically insulated area.  Areas 1 and 7 are always conductive.

Use electrical tape to insulate; use copper or aluminum tape to
make conductive areas.  Remember that cameras might depend on
conductivity between conductive areas because the cassette is made
of metal.


There is another way to approach the task:  I recently rolled some bulk
Vericolor 400 and Ilford XP-1 for a friend with a Point & Shoot camera.
There were 27 short rolls of each film and I didn't feel like putting
foil tape on each cassette.  Since each of these films is ISO 400 and
my friend wasn't going to shoot anything else in the near future, I
decided to recode the CAMERA.  Examining the cavity where the cassette
goes, I found contacts for areas 1, 2, 3 and 4 only.  Of course, area
1 is always conductive, leaving only three areas for ISO setting.
Looking at the ISO table, we see that this camera is not able to
differentiate between the ISO's between multiples of 25; (ISO 80, 64
and 50 will all set to 50, ISO 160, 125 and 100 will all set to 100,
etc).  This is probably just fine for negative film, but may not be
accurate enough for slide film (ISO 64 would be set to 50).

Anyway, I put conductive copper tape (sticky side up) between areas
1 and 4, insulating areas 2 and 3, and then covering over that with
insulating tape.  I told my friend that as long as he was shooting my
bulk loaded cassettes, everything would be OK.  If he wanted to shoot
something else, then remove the tapes.  The first couple of rolls look
OK, so I guess this approach works.  Those of you with non-override
cameras might consider this approach.

A couple of years ago, one of the photo magazines had an article on
ways to fool your P&S camera.  Does anyone remember the magazine and the

PS:  I'm glad my camera is pre-DX.

Ron Speirs, Evans & Sutherland Computer Corp., Salt Lake City, UT

Note 23.05        -< Photo Discussion Groups on the Internet >-

          several photo related lists w/subscription instructions
  If you would like to engage in discussions about photography and imaging
  you might consider subscribing to an e-mail discussion group. Several of 
  these lists are mentioned below.   Just follow instructions and you will
  receive  further information when each list accepts your "susbcription". 
To subscribe to PhotoForum (Internet) send the one line message below to
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  deals with Adobe Photoshop and problems or suggestions related to this topic
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Note 23.06          -< Sprayable/Brushable Emulsion Source >-
    > I want to put a picture on ceramic-ware. Is there an emulsion that can 
    be sprayed or brushed onto this material?

    The Rockland Colloid Corporation 
    PO Box 376 
    Pierpoint Avenue 
    Piermont, NY 10968  
    ph 914-359-5559  fax 914-365-0712  
    makes a sprayable/brushable emulsion


Note 23.07            -< Guide Numbers - what are they? >-
> What does the guide number on a flash mean? If it says 50/ISO 100 or
> something, what does that tell me?

The flash guide number is a "device" that allows you to compute an appropriate
f#  for a particular subject distance given a particular film speed.  It works
like this:
                                guide number
               required f# = -------------------
                             distance from flash
                                 to subject

The guide number of a particular flash is generally given for a full-power
discharge and is associated with a particular film speed.  It is sometimes
given both in feet and in meters.

The guide number is given also assuming certain subject characteristics. This
usually means an  "average"  subject with photography taking place in a small
room with light colored walls. It generally also assumes you will be lighting
your subject from the "front", ie: not side lighting or backlighting. 

Assuming you have a flash with a guide number of 80 with ISO 100 film you will
note that the guide number is 110 with 200 speed film and  160 with 400 speed.

In practice, assuming standard subject located at 10 feet, it works like this:

          f#? = --------     f# = 8     
                10  feet
If you had film that was twice as fast you would expect a one stop decrease in
aperture. (See below how GNs for other than the film speed given by the flash 
maker are determined) So, with same flash as above but using 200 speed film:

          f#? = --------     f# = 11    
                10  feet
If you move twice as close with your flash again using 100 speed film:

          f#? = -------      f# = 16     
                 5  feet

This is an illustration of the "inverse square" law (colloquialism) that would
indicate that if you decrease the distance between a point source and a screen
to one half the original distance the light level increases fourfold.   In the
above example it means you can close the aperture two stops from the original.
> If I were to set up two Nikon SB-25 flash units to work in synch (on camera),
> what effect would that have on effective guide number ?  It seems to me 
> (intuition only) that you would have double the effective output power....

This is quite right. As long as the two flash units are near each other you
have effectively doubled the amount of light falling on your subject
consequently you gain a full stop by simply using two units side-by-side.

So, as far as guide number is concerned you would take the initial guide number
with one unit and multiply it by 1.414 (the square root of 2) and you end up
with the new guide number. 

To gain two stops you would need four units. For three eight units, etc.

The new guide number will be the guide number of a single flash mutiplied by
the square root of the number of available identical flashes. 

> Is there a formula to determine what the guide number would be with any film 
> assuming that I know what it is with some other film speed?

Yes. The relationship is determined as follows:

                                                  \      /----------------
                                                   \    /  New  Film Speed
     Unknown GN is equal to Known GN muliplied by   \  /   ---------------
                                                     \/    Base Film Speed

where Known GN is asociated with Base (or Given) Film Speed and Unknown GN is
GN with film speed for which it is desired to find the GN.

for example: assume you are given a flash with a GN of 80 with 200 speed film.
what is the GN with 400 speed film? and with 50 speed film?

   Unknown GN = 80 times the sq. root of  400/200   or   1.414 x 80 = 110

   Unknown GN = 80 times the sq. root of   50/200   or    .5   x 80 =  40


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