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    FAQ or Answers to Frequently Asked Questions                  Section 19
    This is a file containing answers, tips, hints and guidelines associated 
    with recurring  questions asked by photographers.   If you would like to 
    add a tidbit of knowledge to  this list just send it to   ANDPPH@rit.edu 
    who will gladly add it to this collection. 
                     These files are available in SECTIONS. 
              This is Section 19 and its contents are listed below.
    19.01  -< Making an Improvised Infrared Transmitting Filter >- 
    19.02  -< Fishing for a lost Leader! >-
    19.03  -< Some Basic Infrared Photography Information >- 
    19.04  -< Checklists for Wedding Photography >- 
    19.05  -< Standardized Mounting of Stereo Slides >- 
    19.06  -< Wedding Photography - More Tips >-
    19.07  -< Using "flash" exposure to lower print contrast >- 
    19.08  -< Reloading One-Use Cameras >- 
    19.09  -< What is DENSITY? >- 
    19.10   -< Discontinued Film Sizes @ Film for Classics >-
Note 19.01   -< Making an Improvised Infrared Transmitting Filter >-
                     Visually Opaque, Infrared Transparent
I just determined what I had long suspected. I measured the spectral
transmission characteristics of one and two thicknesses of unexposed but
developed E6 films and found them to be comparable to that of a Wratten 87 IR 
filter. In addition I also made some pix on HIE film through two sheets of D max
EF sheet film and compared the pix to some taken through a "standard" IR filter,
the Wratten 87. 
The result of this is that it appears that one thickness of E6 film is roughly
the equivalent of an 87 filter but with a broader spectral response and with
some 1% transmission valleys at 500 and 600 nm. Its transmission starts to drop
from 1% at 700 nm to about 95% at 800 nm. Two thicknesses of D max E6 are 
basically visually opaque with transmission dropping rapidly starting at 720 nm
and dropping quite rapidly to 90% or so at 850 nm.
Maybe they might be closer to what a 88 is. Basically the 2 sheets of E6 simply
do not have as steep of a cutoff as the Wratten filters do nor as good a
maximum transmittance. But they are serviceable!!! especially for placing over
a flashgun where expensive Wratten filters tend to fry and buckle!
Picture-taking wise, the two thicknesses of E6 film did not seem to degrade
image sharpness significantly when used with 4x5 format. I have not tested 35mm.
They would obviously not matter much when used over a flash for inconspicuous
flash photography at parties, etc.! (camera lens with or without additional 
filter over it).
If you would like a copy of the spectral transmission curves for the 1 and 2 
sheets of E6 film, and that of an 87 filter, just send me some e-mail along 
with your RIT postal address. If you do not hear from me in a few weeks (!) 
jog my memory.
Note 19.02          -< Fishing for a lost Leader! >-
                         Reclaiming a Film Leader
There are many ingenious ways of trying to recover a film leader that for some 
reason needs to be accessed after it has already been  wound into the casette.
This is the start of such a list compiled from various sources.
I just read a new film leader extraction tip that doesn't require the
special tool, which you might want to try.  Take a disposable 4 frame (or
so) negative strip.  Turn your partly used roll inside it's container a few
times in the rewind direction.  Each time the leader passes the entry slot
you should be able to feel or hear a click.  From this click you should be
able to figure out where the leader is.  Turn the film until the leader is
on the opposite side of the roll from the entry slot.  Now insert one end
of your negative strip into the entry slot about halfway (or as far as it'll
go, whichever comes first).  Rewind the film until the leader clicks again.
Now insert the other end of the negative strip as far as it'll go (but leave
something out to hold onto).  Turn the film in the "wind" direction
(ie, opposite of rewind) a little bit.  Now pull slowly and steadily in the
negative strip, and hopefully the trapped leader will come out with it.
I haven't tried this myself yet so take it FWIW, but it sounds like it
might work.  I think I'll try this out myself tonight.
From: "Stephen Wall (SFAE-AR-HIP-SY)" 
and here is another tip:
You might try this trick.  Get some double stick tape or if you are in a
crunch use single stick tape and fold it over onto itself so that the
sticky side is facing out.  Get a scrap lenght of film and place the tape
on the emulsion side of the scrap film.  Turn the film cassette a few
turns so that it windes around the center spool tightly.  Then insert the
scrap film with the double stick tape into the cassette.  Turn the film
cassette the other direction so that the film in the cassette expands to
the outside surfaces of the cassette, this will put the leader into
contact with the double stick tape.  Then pull the scrap film and leader
out.  I have used this method and it works and it's cheap.  The trick is
finding double or single stick tape when you need it.  Something you can't
very well do in the middle of the woods.  However if you make yourself one
of this things before hand it might come in handy when you need it.
From: Patrick Wong 
Note 19.03      -< Some Basic Infrared Photography Information >- 
                         PRIMER ON INFRARED PHOTOGRAPHY
Here is the FAQ sheet I put together when this interested me.  It is now
winter and I haven't had the time, but I do intend to get around to it some
time when I have a little more time up my sleeve.
Here is the long awaited summary of the responses I recieved about my post
on getting started with infrared photography.  I received about 20-30
replies via mail and news which was about 60K before pruning and 30K after
pruning of headers and quoting.  Most people seemed to have similar things
to say so I'm fairly confident about the accuracy of what is said here.
Firstly, thanks go out to most of the following people who I have grepped
from my IR mailbox.  Think a couple of lucky people have snuck in because I
saved questions from them :)  And if you are really confused, someone sent
me a digest of previous articles/replies on the subject of IR photography
so I may have got your name from there.
aaron@binah.cc.brandeis.edu, aazrak@sales.stern.nyu.edu, amolitor@NMSU.Edu,
andpph@ritvax.isc.rit.edu, cdfk@hplb.hpl.hp.com, cravitm@clvax1.cl.msu.edu,
ben_wen@Athena.MIT.EDU, dnewcomb@whale.st.usm.edu, falk@peregrine.Sun.COM,
forman@fraser.sfu.ca, hogan@rcf.usc.edu, jimc@large.isc-br.com,
koolish@BBN.COM, laurap@neuro.duke.edu, mas@mipl8.Jpl.Nasa.Gov,
monson@ECE.ORST.EDU, morris@csa.nsa.hp.com, philg@zurich.ai.mit.edu,
rao@ccu.UManitoba.CA, shm@syl.nj.nec.com, sb13@ukc.ac.uk,
zrepachol@cc.curtin.edu.au, naron@binah.cc.brandeis.edu,
Thank you one and all.
Getting started with Infra-Red Photography
What is Infra-Red Photography and why do I want to do it:
Infra-Red photography is the photography of infra-red light (IR).  The
reflectance of infrared light is different than that of visible light for
certain objects.  The chlorophyl in plants reflects a lot of IR and
rocks/buildings are apparently quite interesting photographed with IR
film.  Results can be quite good, but by all accounts, a lot of effort and
wasted film may be required to get those few good shots.
The Tools of the Trade:
First you need a camera.  IR film is available in 35mm rolls and up.  The
film is apparently fairly grainy so if you are using 35mm, enlargements
over about 10x8" won't be feasible.
Next you need a light sensitive bag.  IR film is sensitive to the visible
light spectrum as well as the IR spectrum.  The plastic canister that holds
the roll of film is IR proof, but the film canister itself is only 'mostly'
IR proof.  Loading the film in a cool dark room is best.  Loading the film
in a light proof/IR proof bag is also good, but if all else fails, a number
of respondents seemed to think that a relatively dark room was OK and that
you might find a bit of fogging on the first couple of shots.
You need a filter for your camera.  The film is sensitive to visible light
and IR, so to increase the effect of the IR light int the photo, you must
filter out the visible light a bit (or totally).  The filters you require
are any of the following types.  A Wratten #25A seemed to be the most
commonly mentioned.  It is a very dark red colour and lets through some
visible light.  A #29 filter (Far Red) was also mentioned.  When using
either of these filters, the focus point moves about half way from the
normal focus to the IR focus on your camera (usually a red dot or line to
the side of the normal focusing position).  The other type of filter is a
#87 filter or #87C filter gel.  These filters are opaque which as you would
imagine makes focusing a little bit difficult.  For all IR photography it
seems the best idea is to turn off your autofocus, set up the shot and then
place the filter on the camera for your shot.
You need some IR film.  General consensus was only buy film from places
that keep it refridgerated.  Keep it cool until you use it.  Use it quickly
and keep it cool afterwards.  Process it within 1-2 days of exposure.
Different films have different characteristics.  The Konica and the Kodak
being the most commonly mentioned.  IR film will fog if you get it hot, so
don't leave your camera in the car in the middle of summer unless you want
a whole bunch of photos that look like photos of pea soup fog.
Quoting from andpph@ritvax.isc.rit.edu's respsonse
> Quite true but the problem can be explained simply by looking at the spectral
> sensitivity curves for the two films. The Konica film basically dies out at
> around 800 nm while the Kodak HS IR film has sensitivity even slightly beyond
> 900 nm. The 87 Wratten filter spectral transmission curve will show that this
> filter allows little radiation to pass to which the Konica film is sensitive.
This was a response to someone's comment that using the times suggested for
Kodak film, gave him a blank negative on the Konica film.  The Konica film
is less likely to fog, less fussy when being loaded, but also less
sensitive to IR light.
Where to get the above items?  People suggested that professional photo
shops were about the only place that will stock most of those items.  If
you go to photo shops that specialise in architechural photography you
should be able to find all of those sort of items.
Taking your photos:
Set up the shot as per normal.  Focus the shot using normal light
conditions.  Put your filter on and adjust the focus to the appropriate
point.  Half way to the red mark for the #25 filter or all the way to the
red mark for the #87 filter.
The IR film is only really sensitive to reflected IR light so having a
strong IR light source is relatively essential.  The sun is a very good one
of these, very cheap, but unfortunately highly unreliable.  Plants reflect
lots of IR light and rocks are apparently very good too.  Bracket your
photos.  Come up with an approximation for your shot and go at least +/-1
and if you are rich, +/-2 as well.
Approximations for exposures suggested were as follows.
If you are using Kodak film, the red 25A filter, and TTL metering, shoot at
ASA 200 and bracket about +/- 1 stop.
I use ASA 200 or ASA 100
sb13@ukc.ac.uk (speaking about the colour IR slide film available)
I also shot some other things with it, aperture/timing as a normal 100ASA film.
For the slide IR, the use of a dark yellow filter is essential. It cuts out the
blue tones (without it, all the slides get a really cold/bluish look. But it
has to be *dark* yellow...  I use two filters (a Y2 (no brand) and a Cokin 001
(which is also a Y2 filter, ie strength 2)) now on the film I'm currently 
shooting, and hope to get some interesting results from that. 
But as a ground rule, bracket loads until you get the 'feel' of the film, use a
strength 4 yellow on the slide IR (I use Ektachrome from Kodak) shooting it as
a 100ASA film and dark red (Hoya have an excellent one there) for the b/w IR (I
think they recommend a 50ASA-ish exposure).
I find it best to set my meter for an ISO of 200 (even though Kodak suggests
ISO 50) and bracket +1, +2, -1, and -2 stops.
You also need to bracket your exposures.  +/- 1 stop around the ISO 200
exposure (if you use TTL metering and a 25A filter) should suffice to start.
Getting the film Processed:
Your run of the mill 1 hour processing lab may not be able to do IR film in
a hurry.  If you are using the colour IR film it is even harder.  It was
suggested that a University lab where they use the film for research might
be a good place to try for that.  For the B&W film you can process it
yourself using the following method, or a few phone calls to processing
labs should find you someone who can do it.  
IR film is EXTREMELY sensitive - you have to be ultra-carfeul when
putting into the film tank - and its worth processing as soon as possible
to avoid unexpected fogging. Use IP11 for 11.5 mins. I've forgotten what
they said to rate the film at... damn it was improtant... sorry.
It is processed in your favorite B&W soup, so far as I know (I've only
ever done one roll myself, and I followed the directions on the sheet
and processed it in class using D-76).
IR Ektachrome is a false-color transparency film that uses the old
E-4 process, instead of the current E-6 process. To find the stuff,
Books on the subject:
The handiest book I've found for photography is 3 inches by 6 inches
and will answer most of your questions.  It even has addresses for
infrared processing. The title is: The Ultimate Photo Data Guide by
Richard Platt.  I bought it at a Crown discount bookstore.
aazrak@sales.stern.nyu.edu & morris@csa.nsa.hp.com
The Art of Infrared Photography by Joseph Paduano
Kodak also put out a number of Books on or related to Infrared Photography
which would help get started.
If you are interested in an article about how to practice IR photography
with an SLR in "action" situations you might like to get in touch with
andpph@ritvax.isc.rit.edu and ask him to mail the information for
finding a copy to the FAQ maintainer for placing in the FAQ.  I should
probably have already mailed him, but I've been busy and want to get this
That about finishes what I think I need to know to get started and as soon
as I have some spare time I will actually get onto it.  I hope this helps
some of you get started as well.
       From: craig@ecel.uwa.edu.au (Craig Richmond - division)
         Organization: The University of Western Australia
Note 19.04        -< Checklists for Wedding Photography >- 
    Make sure you discuss with bride and groom any special situations,
    guests, customs, etc. that they particularly want to be photographed. A
    wedding is a unique event in their lives and you will be providing  a
    very important service. Presumably you will also be paid well for the
    role you will play during that day. Make sure to dress and conduct
    yourself in a professional, dignified and unobtrusive manner. Also, you 
    will find that you may have to take on the role of master of ceremonies
    especially during the reception if you expect every scheduled event to
    happen like clockwork and not all at the last minute and hurried. With
    time everyone will become more disheveled and casual. If by then you
    have not yet taken the "formal" shots you will be hurting! There are
    many labs that will print your negatives for a reasonable price so that
    your profit on a wedding can be substantial. Labs often advertise in
    magazines such as The Rangefinder (a magazine mostly dedicated to
    wedding photography) or the Professional Photographer, the official 
    journal of the Professional Photographers of America.
LIST NUMBER ONE...........................................................
Bride getting ready             Bride with immediate family
Bride alone formals             Bride's parents (together and alone)
Bride with attendants           AV, bounce vignette of bride/attendants
Bride with parents              Bride leaving house     
Groom pre-ceremony sequence     Recessional coverage
Groom with ushers               Receiving line (candids)
Groom with his parents          Rice throwing
Processional coverage           Car sequence (including signs on car)
Ceremony pix                    Picture of the church
Church double exposures
Bride and Groom with each set of parents
Bride and Groom with both sets of parents
Bridal party group
Bride with groomsmen
Bride with bridesmaids
Groom with bridesmaids
Groom with groomsmen
Bride and Groom formals at altar
Each couple with Bride Groom 
Groom with mother father
Bride and groom with her family
Bride and groom with his family
Formals of each couple bridal party
Bridesmaids alone  (if missed at the house)
Each attendant with escorts
Cake (bounce and direct)
Receiving line
Announcement of parents/ bridal party
Priests saying grace
Best man giving toast
Bride and groom toasting each other
Table shots of the guests
Full head table
First dance/ dance sequence
Cake cutting
Double exp/silhouettes of Bride/Groom
Add'l formals Bride&Groom 
Band or D.J.
Candids of interest
Bouquet and Garther
Bride and Groom with couple that cought
Bouquet and Garter
Bride-Groom goodbye pix
Picture of hall, names on marquee
Special effects (stack roll) old fashioned
THIS IS LIST NUMBER TWO (with spaces to add your own items?) ............
   1 -____________________________________
     -Bride at mirror with lipstick
     -Bride at mirror - maid with headpiece
     -Bride and mother at mirror
     -Bride with invitation
     -Bride coming down stairs
     -Bride with attendants (informal)
     -Bride with attendants arranged
  10 -Bride with attendants and garter
     -Bride with parents arranged
     -Bride being kissed by parents
     -Bride with family
     -Bride with maid or mother with gifts
     -Bride putting veil over face
     -Leaving house - Group - arranged
     -Bride and father leaving
     -Getting in car - home in background
  20 -Bride in car - demure expression
     -Bride and Father in car smiling
     -Cars arriving at the church
     -Bride getting out of car
     -Bride, attendants, father entering church
     -Bride being given bouquet
     -Pinning corsage on mother
     -Pinning boutonniere on father
     -Groom, Best man, and cleryman
  30 -Best man adjusting Groom's boutonniere
     -Processional lineup
     -Bride and Father arriving at the altar
     -Father kissing Bride
  40 -Groom kissing Bride
     -Bride and Groom at altar
     -Ceremony - side view
     -Ceremony - Back of church (without flash)
     -Church interior during ceremony
     -Bride placing bouquet on altar
     -Bride and groom receiving congrats
     -Bride and Groom kissing at altar
     -Bride and groom coming down aisle
  50 -Groom kissing Bride at back of Church
     -Bride and Groom congratulated by family
     -Bride and Groom congratulated by attendants
     -Bride and Groom congratulated by friends
     -Group pictures on altar
  60 -_____________________________________
     -Bride and Groom full
     -Bride and Groom looking at each other
     -Bride and groom close-up
     -Bridal party arranged
     -Bride, Groom with Brides parents
     -Bride, Groom with Groom's parents
     -Bride, Groom with both parents
  70 -Bride, Groom with Grandparents
     -Bride and groom leaving church
     -Throwing rice at bride and Groom
     -Bride and Groom getting in car
     -Bride and Groom in car kissing
     -Bride and Groom in car smiling
     -Bride and Groom looking out back window
  80 -Overall procession (auto)
     -Wedding breakfast, over all setting
     -Bride and Groom toasting
     -Special customs
     -Group pictures at reception
  90 -Receiving line at reception
     -Informals of receiving line
     -Overall view of reception setting
     -Informal shot of guests in general
     -Cake alone
     -Grand march
 100 -Bridal toast - by best man
     -Bridal table
     -Family tables
     -Guest tables
     -Bride and Groom toasting each other
     -Bride and Groom cutting cake
 110 -Bride and Groom feeding each other
     -Bride and Groom dancing
     -Bride and father dancing
     -Groom and mother dancing
     -Bridal party dancing 
     -Guest dancing
     -Bride and Groom and ring  
     -Throwing bouquet
     -Throwing garter
 120 -____________________________________
     -Bride and Groom changed
     -Bride and Groom and goodbye
    NAME : __________________________________________________________
    STREET : ________________________________________________________
    CITY: _______________________  STATE : _____________ ZIP:________
    TELEPHONE : _____________________________________________________
    (Date):__________________    (Coverage)___________________________
    BRIDE DRESSING AT:________________________________________________
    TIME OF DRESSING:_________________________________________________
    CEREMONY AT:______________________________________________________
    TIME OF CEREMONY:_________________________________________________
    GROUP PICTURES AT:________________________________________________
    ________________ : _______________________________________________
    ________________ : _______________________________________________
    BRIDE : ________________________ GROOM : _________________________
    MATRON : _______________________ BEST MAN : ______________________ 
    ATTENDANTS : ___________________ USHERS : ________________________
                 ___________________          ________________________
                 ___________________          ________________________
THIS IS LIST NUMBER THREE...................................................
  Formal portraits
  - bride and groom together in a studio. It's also popular to shoot
    romatic poses in casual clothing at a scenic, outdoor location.
  Wedding party
  - combination of bride/groom, brides maid, best men, flower
    girl, ring bearer, etc.
  - father walking daughter on isle
  - shot of entire stage
  - shot of entire stage with various filters (star, soft, etc)
  - exchange rings
  - new couple liting candle
  - signing marriage license
  - kiss
  - bride + groom walking down the isle
  - head table
  - cake cutting, feeding
  - throwing garter
  - throwing bouquet
  - first dance
  - bride arriving
  - bride/groom leaving
  - over threshold
  - bride in make up room
Weddings can be shot on 35mm although standard is 2 1/4. Standard wedding film
is Kodak VPS. Best to stick with one film. A second camera body is a definite
asset. Triopods are useful for some of the available light shots made during
the ceremony if this is allowed. Catholic weddings tend to be the most liberal
in terms of allowing access to good vantage points for photography. Even so it
may be wise to redo certain shots after the wedding.
Have spare batteries in all shapes and sizes you need (AA batteries are
notorious for dying in the flash and button cells in the body!!!). 
Some motor winders are very noisy and you may consider removing it during the  
ceremony. A motor winder is a good source of AA batteries if your flash dies.
Slow (f:3.5) zoom lenses can be hard to focus in relatively dark reception
halls.  f1.4 is easier to focus. You may consider using fixed focal length
lenses for this reason. Autofocus camera may also be useful to ensure sharp
photographs if used carefully. 
    lists compiled from postings in rec.photo on the usenet by andpph
Note 19.05       -< Standardized Mounting of Stereo Slides >- 
                       Proper Mounting of Stereo Slides
The ANSI Standard PH3.11-1953 "Dimensions for Stereo Still Pictures on 35mm
Film 5 Perforation Format" gives the following dimensions (in inches):
                         For the camera transparency:
15 perforations between image pair centers, or 2.805 +/- 0.0075
Each pair of the exposures is between 0.915 to 0.935 wide
Each pair of the exposures is a minimum of 0.984 high (no maximum given)
                               For the mount:
Outside mount width is 4.000 +0/-0.018
Outside mount height is 1.625 +0/-0.016
Aperture centres are 2.438 +/-0.004      ( = 61.92mm +/- 0.1016mm)
Film chip centers are 2.480 +/-0.004     ( = 62.99mm +/- 0.1016mm)
(My copy of the standard is hard to read on these last two figures - anyone
want to volunteer to confirm these?) I quoted inches above as that is what
the standard uses.
As far as mounting gauges go, I personally don't like them. I have the Reel
3D gauge, it is well made with clear, thin lines, but I don't use it. We
obtain our mounts in Australia from a number of sources. Manufacturing
tolerances in the production of the mounts often results in the aperture
spacing being different from the two "near point" marks on the gauge. This
can result, under worst case conditions, in mounting a photo with images in
front of the window, even though the mounting gauge says it is OK.
The best thing to do IMHO (and I do mean in my humble opinion, as there are
many ways to mount) is to throw all gauges away. The next step is to cut a
mount in half through each aperture horizontally as you view through it.
This is your new 100% accurate gauge for the particular brand of mount you
are using. The distance between respective aperture edges is the near point
minimum distance when mounting IN THAT BRAND AND MODEL of mount. So now you
can position your cut-up mount anywhere on a stereo pair that you are
mounting to make sure that the near point is set to this distance:
                        Near point distance
                      |                    |
                      V                    V
                  |   |        |           |         |   |
                  |   |        |           |         |   |
                  |   |        |           |         |   |
                  |    --------             ---------    |
What about the far-point distance? This gauge cannot measure it. But I say
"so what". You have taken the photo already, mounted it with the near
points as close together as the gauge will allow, so what are you going to
do if the far point is beyond infinity (ie: more than 63.4mm). You can't
move the chips any closer together, so why measure the far-point? 
If you have a photo with TO MUCH DEPTH in it you could: satisfy the near
point distance OR satisfy the far point distance, but not both UNLESS you
re-engineer the mount by reducing the aperture centers (ie: move the window
forward). One ad-hoc way to do that is to reduce the aperture width by
placing strips of tape down the outside of each aperture (see also
Ferwarda, "The World of 3D", Chapter 25-3, "Double Depth Method")
These days, I don't even use the mounting gauge described above, I use the
edge of the mount I am mounting in to tell if stuff is in front of the
Alternativley, you can do lots of eye-excersises so that you can diverge
your eyes at will. When you have "rubber eyes" you don't need mounting
gauges, just left and right images positioned anywhere in space,  and you
can still fuse them :-)   (My first smiley!)
Steve Spicer   s.spicer@trl.oz.au (Stephen Spicer, TRL, Melbourne, Australia)
Note 19.06          -< Wedding Photography - More Tips >-
  Here are my recommendations for what to cover and how to shoot a wedding.  
             Donald Farra 
First place yourself in the Bride and Groom's situation, talk to them a least
a month before the wedding, find out from them what they expect to be
photographed.  Ask the Bride what photographs she has seen from other weddings
that she would like to have taken at her wedding.  Ask her what photographs
she did not like and why, add these to your "don't take list".  Like wise ask
the Groom also.  Talk to the families too.  Since the mothers will want
certain family shots both separate and with the other family.  
Make sure you are paid in advance at least two weeks before the wedding. 
Create a contract with them stating what services (time in hours) and
photographs you will take and when you will give them the final product.  It
should state the what if any breaks you will take where and when and if food
will be provided for you. The contract should state what money will be
refunded to them if you cannot make it to the wedding or you miss it all
together.  It should also cover the event that the wedding is called off or
delayed. The goal is to have no surprises on either end.
The list of photographs to be taken from the families and wedding party will
form the core of your photograph list.  
You should be able to break down the list into three time zones, before,
during, and after.  
The photo gear should be checked out and new batteries installed before the
wedding day.  Part of the check out is running a roll of film through each
camera with and without a flash to verify the exposure system.  Spare
batteries are a must.  Also go to the church or wedding location at or around
the time the wedding will occur to spot any problem areas and take mental
notes for good outdoor or indoor shots.
The first one should be the shots taken before the wedding ceremony.  
These include the rehearsal and the dinner, family get togethers at the
bride's home just before leaving for the church.  Bride and Groom arriving at
the church.  The best man straighten out the Groom's tie.  Groom with his
mother and father in the dressing room.  Groom with the best man and then with
friends.  Bride with her mother straighten out her dress and attaching her
veil.  Bride with her father and mother.  Bride with the ring bearer with her
looking at the ring, maybe with some window light coming in from the side. 
Bride with the Flower girl and ring bearer.  Bride with the maid of honor and
then the with the Bride's party.  Photographs of the Bride and Groom before
the wedding ceremony at the alter, then with their families.  It is important
to get the alter shots before the ceremony.  If the bride doesn't want the
groom to see her before the wedding then shot each of the group shots
The second group of photographs to be taken is during the ceremony itself.  
This is the most important set of photographs to be taken so have at least one
backup camera.  Hopefully you will be able to use a flash and be allowed to
move around during the ceremony.  Take the standard shots that you always see
in wedding albums, photographs of the wedding party, groom, and bride walking
down the walk-way, father giving the bride away etc. Make sure they look up at
you when you take the shot, eye contact is good to have in the photo.  Also if
you can shot the couple from behind the alter to show their faces during the
various phases of the wedding.  Finally don't miss the first kiss as man and
Third and last is the post wedding pictures.
This section is broken up into two parts, the formal shots of the wedding
party before the reception and the other part is the reception itself.  You
will have to work fast on the first part so as not hold up the reception.  At
this point you will want to take all the formal group shots typically outdoors
at a romantic location.  Included in this set are the Groom and Bride by
themselves, both close ups and distance shots to pick up on the location
effects (mood).  The other shots are with the families.  Shots Grandparents of
both families in the background next comes the parents then the bride and
groom in the foreground is example of the type of photograph you may want to
take.  The second part of this section is the reception.  Here you will have
to work very fast to cover everything.  The typical shots include the
reception line, the throwing of the flowers, with this one you will photograph
the bride in the act of throwing the flowers over her head but not releasing
them.  Next have her repeat the throw this time you will be shooting behind
her to capture on film the young lady who catches the flowers.  Do likewise
with the garterbelt and the groom.  Also included in this set is the cutting
of the cake and the shot of the bride and groom feeding the each other the
first piece.  A shot I like to take is the signing of the marriage
certificate, along with this get the couple hugging each other with the bride
holding the certificate behind his back with one hand and the other hand
making the OK sign.  Don't forget to photograph the cake before it is cut and
the rest of the food.  Photograph the bride and groom at their table and the
best mans toast to the bride and groom.  Other photographs that should be
taken include the first dance.  Be fast and loose, take shots of the guests at
their tables without them freezing up or turning away, take natural shots if
possible.  Finally get the shots of the couple as they get into and drive off
to their honeymoon.
Then you are done and you can drop dead of exhaustion and try to remember that
phone number for the trucking school you saw on TV the night before.
Note 19.07    -< Using "flash" exposure to lower print contrast >- 
OK, so you really blew it this time and made a once in a lifetime shot that is
WAY to contrasty.  Even with a filter factor of 00 the print is dead.  Fear not
my fellows, all is not lost:
Dilute your regular paper developer by adding twice the water you normally use
(I use Ilford mixed 1:10 normally, here I use it 1:20).  Over expose your print
by one stop, that is twice the amount of light or time.  See what happens!  A
reduced contrast print after several long minutes in the bath.
This is not a mathematical thing, it's an art.  So be prepared to experiment. 
It's sure saved my butt a couple of times!    
from: Louis - jezsik@phoenix.stfx.ca
Just another $0.02 worth - with extra high contrast negs, you can also
pre-flash the paper (if you have a timer with tenth-of-second capability).  You
just put the paper in the easel with no negative in the carrier, and give it a
short (.x sec) exposure of white light, at a moderate f-stop. You need to test
this first, making a test strip or two to see what the threshold for each paper
is, and how much light gives you how much fogging, but the intentional fogging
you get does bring down the highlights when you re-expose the paper for the
actual print.  Tricky, and very much a seat-of-the-pants operation, but it's
useful (IMHO).
from: the other Andy - madsox@phantom.com
Another way to preflash is to use a Neutral Density filter. Typically these
would have a density of about 2.0 and this will give an exposure which is
1/100 th of the main exposure (which for some film materials is often quite
adequate if you are trying to get "extra" film speed).
In enlarging the procedure would be to preflash with just the bare carrier in
place (no neg in carrier) with a particular ND value under the lens for the
same time that you will for the final print. Then remove the ND filter, place
the neg in the enlarger and proceed conventionally.
To get less of a preflash use a higher ND value, for more a lower. .3 change in
ND is the equivalent of one stop of aperture or time (of course the actual
response being subject to RLF or reciprocity law failure).
It might be interesting to preflash with one contrast filter but expose with
another. I wonder what exactly would happen to the characteristic curve if one
did this...
from: Andy andpph@ritvax.isc.rit.edu
There is a much more controllably method to "Flash", or pre-expose your B/W
photographic paper.
1.  Establish a print time and f/stop for your print.
2. Obtain a defusing screen paper such as Seal ColorMount Dry Mount Paper,
(or other material about equal density).
3. Use the diffusion screen as a "filter" under your enlarging lens, much
like a polycontrast filter, keep your negative in the enlarger, use the
same exposure time with the defusing screen as you have established for a
correct exposure for this print. After this exposure remove the defusing
screen and make your normal exposure without the screen, (there should be
two full exposures, one with the screen, one without).
You may need to make more then one exposure with the defusing screen or
less then a full exposure depending on what you want from your final print,
you can determine that with a test strip. The real beauty of this method is
the ability to totally control the "Flash" exposure without removing your
negative from the enlarger so you do not experience alignment problems.
With the  correct density of a defusing screen, you will not see any image
being projected on your paper, just a faint even light.
from: Lawrence - coyote@CCWF.CC.UTEXAS.EDU
Call me backward!  I don't PREflash.  I POSTflash.  I place the negative in the
negative carrier, focus on a 'focus-sheet', insert the paper I will expose into
the easel, make the exposure, then remove the negative and flash  the now
exposed paper using either Andys' method.  By focusing and making the exposure
using the negative firts, there is less chance of the enlarger slipping
and causing a slightly out-of-focus print.  Many enlargers have a tendence to
'drift' from true focus if too much time elapses between focus and exposure.
Also, if you are cropping, the exact alignment would be very 'iffy' in the
scenario (boy, I hate that word) where the exposure of the negative is made
last in the sequence.
from: ???
I "post-flash" also, but I use a separate contact-printing box instead of
the enlarger for the non-image light source.  After making the exposure, I
put the paper in the proofer face-up (emulsion AWAY from the light source,
so the paper base itself acts as an ND filter) and expose for a short time.
On the homebuilt proofer we have in the lab, that time can be up to 2.2
By using an altogether separate light source for the non-image-forming
exposure, I don't have to disturb the enlarger at all, so I have no problems
with focus shifts and such, nor do I have to realign my easel for each
print.  Also, since the proofer does not mask the paper borders as an easel
does, there is no problem with the paper shifting between the image and
non-image exposures (creating an offset area of "flashing", which can show
as light gray on the white borders.)  Last but not least, it's quicker to do
than removing and replacing the neg carrier in the enlarger; this may not be
of consequence if you're doing one print on your own time, but it becomes
important when you're cranking out 200 prints that need preflashing and have
to be done by tomorrow morning for a customer.
from: Richard - rph0470@tntech.edu
Note 19.08              -< Reloading One-Use Cameras >- 
                  How to reuse kodak disposable cameras without 
                  having to spool out your film in a darkroom.
First you need to remove the outer cardboard box from the camera.  There's a
little diagram on the plastic body itself telling you how to open up the camera
body.  Only open the camera body if you are completely finished with your roll
of film.  When you open the camera, you will discover on the right hand side,
a normal 35mm film cassette.  Take it out and have it developed as you normally
would.  On the left hand side there is a spool.  Take this out and look at it.
You will notice that one end appears to have been melted.  Put the spool down
on a tabletop with this melted end facing up.  Next, take a large paper clip,
unfold one end and heat it up with a candle or a cigarette lighter until it
glows.  Press the hot paper clip gently into the melted end of the spool so tha
t it forms a slot that you can fit a screwdriver in it to turn it.  Once the
spool has cooled off and hardened, you are ready to reuse your camera.
Take a roll of film, same ASA and length as the roll of film that came out of
the camera (but use whatever brand you want...i use XP2)  and put it in the
camera where the previous roll was.  Feed the end of the leader into the spool.
Be sure that the leader is secure into the spool.  Now, you will notice that
there is a sprocket on the focal plane of the camera.  turn this to the right
until it stops completely.  The shutter is now cocked.  Put the film cassette
and spool in their respective places in the camera and close its back, but
don't put the cardboard box on it yet.  On the top of the camera, near the
shutter release, there is a hole with a goldish piece of metal in it.  Take
a paper clip or a thumbtack, insert it in the hole, and push this piece of
metal all the way to the left and hold it there.  Take a screwdriver and
wind the spool counterclockwise until it stops.  Don't force it.  Remove your
paper clip from the hole.  Put the cardboard box back on the camera body and
secure the flaps with drafting tape (drafting tape is removable and leaves
no adhesive behind).  When you are done with your roll of film, open your
camera and take your film out and have it developed normally.
suggestion from: Joseph Pitassi III   JPIT4903@URIACC.URI.EDU
Note 19.09                  -< What is DENSITY? >- 
                    1. What is the definition of density? 
         2. Does density have a physical unit or is it a unit-less ratio?
    When light is directed thru a negative, some of the light is
    transmitted, and some reflected or absorbed.  The transmitted light can
    be expressed as a percentage of the total incident light, if for
    example 4/10 is being transmitted, we say that the negative has a
    "transmission" of 40% This "transmission" tell us "how clear" a
    negative is.  Since we are interested in knowing "how dense" a negative
    is rather than how clear it is, we calculate the "opacity" of it, where
    opacity is the reciprocal of "transmission". For the above example, the
    opacity would be 10/4 = 2.5
    "Density" is then defined as the common Log of opacity, 0.4 (aprox) in
    our case.
    As for "does it have a physical unit?" the answer is: as far as
    photography is concerned it is expressed in "units of density", but
    being a relation between 2 values that must be expressed in the same
    unit, mathematically and physically speaking, it is a unit-less ratio.
    From: guillermo.penate@canrem.com (Guillermo Penate)
Note 19.10     -< Discontinued Film Sizes @ Film for Classics >-
      If you are  looking for  film  to fit  obsolete cameras or need
      discontinued film sizes the follwing comany may be able to help.
Richard T. Haviland, Film for Classics, P.O. Box 486, Honeoye Falls, NY  14472
                              (716) 624-4945
                   Format                   Format 
                   (Kodak)  Type  Price     (Kodak)  Type  Price
                   101      B&W   12.00     103      B&W   13.50
                   116      B&W   11.00     118      B&W   12.00
                   616      B&W   10.00     127      B&W    5.00
                   127      Color  7.50     620      B&W    6.50
                   620      Color  7.50     122      B&W   13.00
                   124      B&W   13.00     130      B&W   13.50
                   828      B&W    4.00 or 2/7.00
                   828      Color  5.50 or 2/10.00
        Notes:  B&W films are ISO 21 Ortho copy film except for 127,
        which is ISO 100 panchromatic Efke.  127 and 620 color film is
        Kodacolor Gold 200.  828 color is 400 ASA professional film.
        $2 spool rebate on 103, 116, 118, 122, & 124 spools.
        127 slide film is color slide film is custom made (cut).  
        A minimum order is 40 rolls at $10.00 a roll.

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